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Mount Vernon: The Start of Historical Preservation 國家寶藏 弗農山莊

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Mount Vernon: The Start of Historical Preservation  國家寶藏 弗農山莊

by Lauren McCarthy

    

  Travel anywhere in the United States, and you are almost certain to be near a famous person’s home you can tour. Perhaps it’s a farmhouse that __1__ a notable 19th century writer, a palace built by a wealthy newspaper owner, or the residence of a well-known political figure. __2__ preserved and protected estates are a familiar sight in the US, this wasn’t always the case. In fact, it was the home of the country’s first president that started this preservation movement.
  Mount Vernon, the home of George Washington, was originally a Virginia plantation located on the banks of the Potomac River. The estate was owned by his ancestors, and Washington __3__ it from his late brother at the age of 22. The farm remained his home throughout the American Revolution and his presidency, and was where he died in 1799 when he was 67.
  Following his death, Mount Vernon was passed to various relations, but they were unable to maintain it. It slowly fell into disrepair, and an 1855 request to Congress to buy the __4__ was rejected. In 1858, the Mount Vernon Ladies’ Association purchased Mount Vernon with the aim of restoring it to its former glory. __5__ was this group notable because it was made up solely of women, but they also set a standard for future historic preservation projects. So next time you visit a home that looks just like it did in the past, you can thank a group of Virginia women for making that possible.
1. (A) turned into  (B) served as  (C) resulted from  (D) belonged to
2. (A) While  (B) Unless  (C) Since  (D) Whether
3. (A) observed  (B) abandoned  (C) inherited  (D) established
4. (A) territory  (B) property  (C) dormitory  (D) community
5. (A) Not until  (B) No wonder  (C) Not only  (D) No longer

 mount n. ……峰∕山(用於山名中)
 farmhouse n. 農舍
 palace n. 豪宅;王宮
 estate n. 莊園(可數);房地產∕不動產(不可數)
 plantation n. 農莊,農園
 bank n. 河岸
 presidency n. 總統任期∕職位
 Congress n. 美國國會(大寫)
 association n. 協會;聯盟

1. Perhaps it’s a farmhouse that belonged to a notable 19th century writer, a palace built by a wealthy newspaper owner…
理由
a. (A) turn into…  轉變成……
‧After months of cold weather, everyone was excited about winter turning into spring.
在天氣冷了好幾個月之後,大家都對冬天轉變成春天感到雀躍不已。
(B) serve as…  作……用,充當……
‧Our garage also serves as a tool shed.
我們家的車庫也會用來當作擺工具的小屋。
(C) result from…  起因於??
= derive from… / stem from…
‧Skin cancer usually results from too much exposure to the sun.
皮膚癌通常是因太常在太陽底下曝晒所致。
(D) belong to…  是……的,屬於……
‧This old watch belonged to my great grandfather.
這只舊錶以前是我曾祖父的。
b. 根據語意,也許你到美國旅遊時會在十九世紀名作家「的」農舍,或是有錢報社老闆建造的豪宅等住所附近,故答案選 (D)。

2. While preserved and protected estates are a familiar sight in the US, this wasn’t always the case.
理由
a. 本題測試以下副詞連接詞的用法:
(A) while 可表「儘管,雖然」,等於 though 或 although,其所引導的副詞子句通常置於句首,其後加逗點,再接主要子句。
‧While you may be rich, that doesn’t mean you can boss people around.
雖然你也許很富有,但不代表你可以對人頤指氣使。
(B) unless 表「除非」,等於 if not,其所引導的副詞子句可置於句首或句中。
‧Unless you decide to drive there this weekend, I will take the train to the beach.
除非你這週末決定要開車去海灘,不然我就要搭火車過去了。
(C) since 可表「因為」,等於 because,此時其後引導的副詞子句及所修飾的主要子句可用一般時態。
‧Since she has lots of money, Lily can afford a new house.
由於莉莉有很多錢,因此她買得起新房子。
(D) whether 表「不論是否」,與 or 連用,表示無論是哪種可能性,結果都一樣。
‧Whether we go by bus or train, we are still going to be late for school.
不論我們搭公車還是火車,上學都會遲到的。
b. 根據語意,「儘管」被保存維護的莊園在美國是個熟悉的景象,過去並不總是如此,故答案選 (A)。

3. … and Washington inherited it from his late brother at the age of 22.
理由
a. (A) observe vt. 遵行(法律、習俗);慶祝(節日);觀察
‧All of us must observe these regulations.
我們全都必須遵守這些規則。
(B) abandon vt. 拋棄,遺棄
‧We abandoned our homes due to the war.
我們因為戰爭而拋下家園。
(C) inherit vt. 繼承;遺傳(某特徵)
inherit sth from sb  從某人繼承∕遺傳到某物
‧Al inherited a large fortune from his father.
艾爾繼承爸爸留下來的一大筆遺產。
(D) establish vt. 建立,創立
‧Mr. Su established a free medical clinic.
蘇先生創立了一間免費的醫療診所。
b. 根據語意,華盛頓在二十二歲時從已故兄長那裡「繼承」了弗農山莊,且 “inherit sth from sb” 為固定用法,故 (C) 項應為正選。

4. It slowly fell into disrepair, and an 1855 request to Congress to buy the property was rejected.
理由
a. (A) territory n. 領土,屬地
‧The two countries are fighting over a small piece of territory.
這兩個國家正在爭奪一小塊領土。
(B) property n. 房地產
‧The price of property has risen lately.
最近房地產的價格已有上漲。
(C) dormitory n. 宿舍
‧The school dormitory can only accommodate 200 students.
學校宿舍只能容納兩百名學生。
(D) community n. 社區
‧Nancy lives in a small community outside the city.
南西住在城外的ㄧ個小社區裡。
b. 本句的代名詞 It 指的是弗農山莊,可知在 1855 年有人向國會請求購買該「房產」,故答案選 (B)。

5. Not only was this group notable because…, but they also…
理由
a. 本題測試下列固定用法:
not only… but (also)…  不僅……而且……
= not only… but… as well
注意
“not only… but (also)…” 為對等連接詞片語,可連接對等的單字、片語或子句;若連接對等的主要子句時,not only 後的第一個主要子句要倒裝。but also 僅為連接詞,故其後的第二個主要子句不須倒裝。
Not only was Mark late for class, but he (also) forgot to bring his homework.
馬克不僅上課遲到,還忘了帶作業。
b. 根據上述用法且由第二個主要子句的 but they also 可知,(C) 項應為正選。

1. be certain to V  注定要……
= be sure to V
= be bound to V
‧Don’t put my sweater in the dryer because it would be certain to shrink.
別把我的毛衣放進烘衣機,因為那一定會縮水。

2. at the age of + 年紀  在……歲時
‧Believe it or not, Bob became a millionaire at the age of 25.
信不信由你,鮑伯二十五歲就成了百萬富翁。

3. be unable to V  無法做……
= be incapable of V-ing
‧Since he is too busy, Larry is unable to take on the new project.
賴瑞因為太忙而無法承接新專案。

4. fall into disrepair  變得破敗不堪
disrepair n.(建築物、道路等)破損∕失修
‧The building has fallen into disrepair over the years.
這棟建築物已年久失修。

5. with the aim of V-ing  為了……
‧Rita moved to New York with the aim of seeking fame and fortune.
瑞塔為了追尋名利而移居紐約。

6. be made up of…  由……組成
= consist of…
= be composed of…
‧This class is made up of 20 students.
這個班級由二十個學生組成。

7. set a standard  設立標準
‧Our goal is to set a standard of good living for our children.
我們的目標是為孩子設立一套良好的生活標準。

1. historical a. 歷史的;與歷史有關的
historic a. 有歷史意義的
‧Grandma told us about the historical events she had lived through.
奶奶告訴我們她所經歷過的歷史事件。

2. preservation n. 保存,保護
preserve vt. 保存;儲存(本文為過去分詞作形容詞用)
‧All the books in the library are in a good state of preservation.
圖書館裡所有的書都被保存得很好。

3. notable a. 著名的,顯著的
‧Sunflowers is one of Vincent van Gogh’s most notable paintings.
《向日葵》是文森.梵谷最著名的畫作之一。

4. wealthy a. 有錢的,富裕的
‧The wealthy man has his own private island.
這名有錢男子擁有自己的私人島嶼。

5. residence n. 住宅
‧Paul spent two months at his summer residence last year.
保羅去年在自己的夏日住所待了兩個月。

6. political a. 政治(上)的
‧The mayor was forced to step down after his involvement in a political scandal.
該市長在捲入政治醜聞後被迫下臺。

7. originally adv. 原本,最初
‧This project has taken much longer than Jacob originally planned.
這項專案所花的時間比雅各原先計劃的還要久。

8. ancestor n. 祖先
‧Mr. Weber’s ancestors came from Germany.
韋伯先生的祖先來自德國。

9. revolution n. 革命
‧There is a revolution taking place in that country.
那個國家正發生一場革命。

10. various a. 許多不同的,各式各樣的
‧This vacuum cleaner comes with various attachments.
這個吸塵器附有許多不同的配件。

11. relation n. 親戚,家人;關係
‧Some of Robert’s relations came to see him for the first time in 10 years.
羅伯特的一些親戚十年來第一次來看他。

12. request n. & vt. 請求,要求
make a request  請求
‧Sam made a request for a raise after working at the company for two years.
山姆在公司任職兩年後要求加薪。

13. purchase vt. & n. 購買
‧Ricky purchased his children’s Christmas gifts at the new toy store.
瑞奇在那間新開的玩具店購買要給孩子們的聖誕禮物。

14. restore vt. 恢復;修復
‧The good job you did on the last project restored my confidence in you.
上個專案你做得非常好,讓我重拾對你的信心。

15. glory n. 輝煌;光榮,榮耀
‧The castle reminds us of the past glory of the kingdom.
這座城堡使我們想起該王國往日的榮耀。

16. solely adv. 完全地;僅僅(= only)
‧Eddie failed solely because he was lazy.
艾迪會失敗純粹因為他很懶惰。

reject vt. 駁回,拒絕
‧I felt sad when the manager rejected my proposal.
經理駁回我的提案時,我感到很難過。
————————————————————————-
以下介紹其他表「駁回,拒絕」的單字:
a. refuse vi. & vt. 拒絕
‧I asked Ray to do me a favor, but he refused.
我請小雷幫忙,可是他拒絕了。
b. decline vt. 婉拒,拒絕
‧David wanted to give me a ride home, but I politely declined his offer.
大衛想載我回家,但我婉拒了他的提議。
c. deny vt. 拒絕給予
‧Women in that country are denied the right to vote.
該國拒給婦女投票權。
d. disapprove vt. 駁回(請願、建議等)
‧The project was disapproved by the boss.
這項企劃案被老闆駁回了。
e. dismiss vt. 駁回,不理會
‧In light of the new evidence, the judge is going to dismiss the case.
由於這項新證據,法官將會駁回此案。
f. turn down… / turn… down  拒絕……
‧I have to turn down your invitation because I am too busy.
因為我太忙了,所以我得婉拒你的邀請。

國家寶藏 弗農山莊
  

  到美國任何地方旅遊時,你幾乎肯定會在某個能參觀的名人家附近。也許是十九世紀名作家的農舍、有錢報社老闆建造的豪宅,或是家喻戶曉的政治人物的住所。儘管被保存維護的莊園在美國是個熟悉的景象,過去並不總是如此。事實上,開啟這項保存運動的莊園正是該國第一任總統的故居。
  喬治.華盛頓的故居弗農山莊原本是個位在波多馬克河河岸、維吉尼亞州的農莊。該莊園的擁有者是他的祖先,而華盛頓在二十二歲時從已故兄長那裡繼承了它。這座農莊在美國革命時期及其總統任期內都是他的家園,而他於 1799 年在那裡與世長辭(享壽六十七歲)。
  在他過世後,弗農山莊被傳給形形色色的親戚,但他們都無法好好維護它。它慢慢變得破舊不堪,且在 1855 年有人向國會請求購買該房產時遭到駁回。1858 年,弗農山莊婦女協會買下弗農山莊,目的是要恢復其昔日輝煌。這個團體出名的原因不僅是因為它全由婦女組成,也因為她們為將來的歷史保存計畫樹立了標準。所以下次你造訪一個看起來跟過去一樣的家園時,就可以感謝一群維吉尼亞州的女性使之成為可能。
答案: 
1. D 2. A 3. C 4. B 5. C

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身為企業領導人或經理人,最重要的責任就是讓公司永續經營下去,因此,「策略」顯得格外重要。真正的策略應該是動態的,不能只在既有架構上求精進,而是在策略上向上提升,做到「策略創新」。

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