Fictist

未分類

Truly Defining Emotional Labor 真正的勞「心」又勞力 ── 情緒勞動

每一波漲潮,《財訊月刊》的讀者都賺到了!!訂閱【財訊電子報】讓您邁向致富之路,從劣勢成為贏家!! 【MUZIK古典樂刊】提供最新古典音樂訊息,以及有趣的音樂小知識,突破你對古典音樂的想像。

無法正常瀏覽圖片,請按這裡看說明   無法正常瀏覽內容,請按這裡線上閱讀
新聞  健康  財經  追星  NBA台灣  udn部落格  udnTV  讀書吧  

2019/06/18 第419期 訂閱/退訂看歷史報份直接訂閱

   
 

Truly Defining Emotional Labor  真正的勞「心」又勞力 ── 情緒勞動

by Lauren McCarthy

    

  The #MeToo movement that took center stage in 2017 brought with it conversations that went beyond rape and sexual assault. __1__ More often than not, this discussion will include the term emotional labor. However, the way this trending term is used is incorrect.
  First coined by sociologist Arlie Hochschild in her 1983 book, The Managed Heart, emotional labor is about the need to manage one’s emotions within the framework of one’s job. __2__ Most of these people are expected to be friendly, bubbly, and smiling throughout their working day. Managers may need to project a sense of sternness in their interactions with employees. __3__ All of these are examples of emotional labor.
  The term emotional labor gets used synonymously with mental load, which is the burden of remembering all the tasks that go into maintaining a household. This is incorrect, and the impact of the concept is being swept under the carpet. __4__ The burden of maintaining an emotional facade is not usually thought of as an aspect of one’s work, but it is often responsible for burnout and the feeling of being overworked.
  As the term has been co-opted to mean different things than what Hochschild originally intended, she has pointed out that using a singular term to talk of separate concepts is an issue. __5__ “Emotional labor, as I introduced the term in The Managed Heart, is the work, for which you’re paid, which centrally involves trying to feel the right feeling for the job,” Hochschild said in a recent interview.
(A) Bill collectors have to present an aggressive demeanor.
(B) The effects emotional labor has on people and their jobs are often ignored.
(C) Think of tour guides, tipped waiters, and others that work in customer service jobs.
(D) The load falls primarily on mothers’ shoulders, and it’s making them extremely exhausted.
(E) Instead of muddying the waters by altering its meaning, she believes emotional labor should relate specifically to employment.
(F) One common topic that has been discussed with increasing regularity is the extra effort that women put into running and managing a household.

 

1. 第一題空格應選 (F)
理由
a. 本空格在測試對段落語意連貫性的掌握,答題線索為空格前一句的 conversations that went beyond rape and sexual assault,以及空格後一句的 this discussion。
b. 選項 (F) 表示,越來越為人討論的一個常見主題是女性在經營和管理家庭上付出的額外努力,語意連貫,且選項中人們討論的常見主題,與前一句中其他層面的對話及後一句中的此種討論相互呼應,可知答案應選 (F)。
字詞補充
a. regularity n. 經常;規律性
b. household n. 家庭 & a. 家用的
‧ Most of the households in this area have a pool.
這個地區的多數人家都有游泳池。
‧ TVs are a common household appliance.
電視機是一種常見的家電用品。

2. 第二題空格應選 (C)
理由
a. 本空格在測試對段落語意連貫性的掌握,答題線索為空格前一句的 manage one’s emotions within the framework of one’s job,以及空格後一句的 Most of these people。
b. 選項 (C) 表示,想一想導遊、收取小費的服務生以及其他從事服務業的人,語意連貫,且選項中提及的職業皆符合前一句提到在工作中必須管理自己情緒的需求,且與後一句中的大多數的這些人相互呼應,可知答案應選 (C)。
字詞補充
a. tip vt. 給小費(本文為過去分詞作形容詞用)
‧ It is common practice to tip waiters in the US.
在美國,給服務生小費是很普遍的做法。
b. customer service  顧客服務

3. 第三題空格應選 (A)
理由
a. 本空格在測試對段落語意發展的掌握。空格前一句提及主管可能需要表現出嚴厲的樣子,空格後一句則說明這些全都是情緒勞動的例子,可推測空格應提及情緒勞動的另一個例子。
b. 選項 (A) 表示,催繳帳單的人必須表現出咄咄逼人的樣子,符合推測且語意連貫,可知答案應選 (A)。
字詞補充
a. a bill collector  催款員,帳款催收人員
collector n. 收取款項的人;收藏家
b. aggressive a. 具攻擊性的;挑釁的
‧ Some dogs are friendly, others are shy, and still others are aggressive.
有些狗狗很友善、有些很害羞,還有一些則具攻擊性。
c. demeanor n. 舉止,行為

4. 第四題空格應選 (B)
理由
a. 本空格在測試對段落語意發展的掌握,答題線索為空格前一句的 the impact of the concept is being swept under the carpet。
b. 選項 (B) 表示,情緒勞動對於人們與其工作所造成的影響往往被忽略,語意連貫,且選項中情緒勞動被忽略的影響,與前一句中情緒勞動真正概念的影響力正在被隱匿相互呼應,可知答案應選 (B)。
字詞補充
ignore vt. 忽略,忽視
‧ Simon tries to ignore his wife when she nags him.
賽門的老婆對他嘮叨時,他試著不搭理她。

5. 第五題空格應選 (E)
理由
a. 本空格在測試對段落語意連貫性的掌握。空格前一句提及霍奇斯柴德認為使用情緒勞動這單一措詞來探討不同概念是一個問題,空格後一句則提到她在採訪中的看法,可推測空格應提及霍奇斯柴德如何應對情緒勞動一詞被誤用的情形。
b. 選項 (E) 表示,她並非要改變它的定義來使情況變得更複雜,而是認為情緒勞動應專指受僱,符合推測且語意連貫,可知答案應選 (E)。
字詞補充
a. muddy the waters  使情況變得更複雜
muddy vt. 使混濁 & a. 混濁的,泥濘的
‧ Don’t muddy the waters with unrelated issues. We need to focus on this one problem.
別用不相關的議題使情況更複雜。我們需要專注在這個問題上。
b. alter vt. 改變
‧ Being fired from her high-paying job dramatically altered Allison’s life.
愛麗森丟了高薪工作之後,生活有了很大的改變。
c. relate to…  和……(直接)相關;有關……
‧ That TV program relates to events caused by terrorism.
該電視節目的內容與恐怖主義所引起的事件有關。
*terrorism n. 恐怖主義
d. specifically adv. 專門,特別地
‧ We put aside some money specifically for the project.
我們特別為那項計畫撥出一筆款項。

1. take center stage  成為焦點
‧ Political events usually take center stage in the news.
政治事件通常是新聞報導的焦點。

2. more often than not  通常,多半
‧ More often than not, getting out of bed in the morning is a struggle for me.
早上要從被窩裡爬起來對我來說通常很掙扎。

3. be expected to V  被期待∕預期(做)……
‧ A lot of people are expected to benefit from this new policy.
預期很多人將因該新政策而受惠。

4. go into…  花(時間、精力)在……
‧ Plenty of time and money went into organizing the trade fair.
籌辦商展投入了大量的時間與金錢。

5. sweep sth under the carpet  隱瞞∕掩飾……(問題、祕密等)
carpet n. 地毯
‧ Don’t sweep the problem under the carpet. Try to fix it as soon as possible.
不要掩飾問題。試著盡快去解決它吧。

6. be responsible for…  是……的原因;對……負責
‧ The poor economic situation was responsible for the social unrest.
經濟蕭條導致社會動盪不安。
*unrest n. 動盪,動亂
‧ We are certain that Josh was responsible for the car accident.
我們確信喬許該為這場車禍負責。

 

rape n. & vt. 強暴
trend vi.(在網路和社群媒體上)流行起來
(本文為現在分詞作形容詞用)
coin vt. 創造,發明(新字詞)
sociologist n. 社會學家
framework n. 體制;框架
bubbly a. 活潑的,熱情奔放的
sternness n. 嚴厲,嚴格
 stern a. 嚴格的,苛刻的
facade n. 假象;表面
burnout n.(因拚命工作而)筋疲力盡
overworked a. 工作過度的
co-opt vt. 借用,借鑑
singular a. 單一的,單數的
 plural a. 複數的

1. emotional a. 情緒的
‧ Shyness is an emotional problem that many people have.
害羞是許多人會有的情緒問題。

2. assault n. & vt. 攻擊,襲擊
sexual assault  性侵害
make an assault on…  攻擊……
‧ The enemy made an assault on the capital last night.
敵人昨晚對首都發動攻擊。
‧ The criminal assaulted the owner of the store during the robbery.
該名罪犯在搶劫時襲擊商店老闆。

3. project vt. 表現出……的特質;投射
‧ Recently the president has sought to project a much tougher image.
最近該總統試著表現出更為強硬的形象。

4. interaction n. 互動,交流
‧ The problem is that there is not enough interaction between the couple.
這對情侶間的問題在於互動不足。

5. synonymously adv. 同義地
synonymous a. 同義的
be synonymous with…  和……同義
‧ Wealth is not necessarily synonymous with happiness.
財富未必等同於幸福。

6. impact n. 影響
have an impact on…  對……有影響
‧ The way Jim’s stepfather treated him had an impact on his behavior towards other people.
吉姆繼父對待他的方式影響了他對別人的行為舉止。

7. aspect n. 方面,層面
‧ The police analyzed all aspects of the case.
警方分析了這個案件的所有層面。

8. intend vt. 意圖,打算
intend to V  想要∕打算做……
‧ We should get down to business if we intend to finish on time.
如果我們打算準時完成,就應該開始認真工作了。

9. issue n. 問題,議題
‧ The issue of sexual discrimination was widely discussed during the meeting.
性別歧視的議題在會議上被廣泛討論。

10. centrally adv. 主要;中心地
‧ The book is centrally concerned with the subject of social welfare.
這本書主要是關於社會福利的主題。

11. involve vt. 涉及;包含
be involved in…  涉及……
‧ The evidence showed that Jason was involved in the robbery.
證據顯示傑森涉入這起搶案。

labor n. 勞動;勞工;分娩
‧ The strike has negatively affected both management and labor alike.
這場罷工對勞資雙方都造成負面影響。
————————————————————————-
以下介紹 labor 常見的搭配用法:
a. cheap / child / manual / hard labor  
廉價勞工∕童工∕勞力工作∕苦工
‧ The availability of cheap labor has given Asia an economic edge over the West.
亞洲擁有廉價勞工,使其在經濟上較西方占優勢。
‧ Mark doesn’t like manual labor. He wants a desk job instead.
馬克不喜歡勞力工作。相反地,他想要一份坐辦公室的工作。
b. a labor of love  心甘情願的工作
‧ Jenny works as a volunteer in the hospital, and it is a labor of love for her.
珍妮在醫院當義工,這是她心甘情願的工作。
c. be in labor  分娩,臨盆
‧ The woman was in labor for exactly two hours.
這名婦女分娩的過程整整有兩個鐘頭。
d. go into labor  進入分娩
‧ Ann went into labor at six o’clock last night.
小安昨晚六點開始分娩。
e. a difficult / an easy labor  難產∕順產

 

真正的勞「心」又勞力 ── 情緒勞動
  

  2017 年成為關注焦點的 #MeToo 運動所引發的不只有著重在強暴和性侵害方面的對話。越來越為人討論的一個常見主題是女性在經營和管理家庭上付出的額外努力。此種討論通常包含情緒勞動這一個詞。然而,這個在網路及社群媒體上流傳的詞用法卻不正確。
  社會學家亞莉.霍奇斯柴德在其 1983 年出版的《情緒管理的探索》一書中首次使用情緒勞動這個詞,指的是一個人在工作體制內必須管理自己的情緒。想一想導遊、收取小費的服務生以及其他從事服務業的人。大多數的這些人在工作時被期待要表現友善、活潑熱情並隨時把微笑掛在臉上。主管在與員工互動的過程中可能需要展現出嚴厲的感覺。催繳帳單的人必須表現出咄咄逼人的樣子。這些全都是情緒勞動的例子。
  情緒勞動一詞和精神負載(即記得一切維持家庭所需做的事而帶來的重擔)被當作同義詞來使用。但這是不正確的,而情緒勞動真正概念的影響力正在被隱匿。情緒勞動對於人們與其工作所造成的影響往往被忽略。維持特定情緒假象的重擔通常不被認為是某人工作的一部分,但它卻常常是人們筋疲力盡和覺得工作過度的原因。
  由於這個詞已被借用來意指與霍奇斯柴德原先所想不一樣的東西,她指出使用單一措詞來探討不同概念是一個問題。她並非要改變它的定義來使情況變得更複雜,而是認為情緒勞動應專指受僱。霍奇斯柴德在一次最近的採訪中說道:「正如我在《情緒管理的探索》中所介紹的那樣,情緒勞動是你有支薪的工作,主要涉及為了該工作而試著去感受適當的情緒。」
答案:
1. F  2. C  3. A  4. B  5. E

 
新概念全方位英語

繼熱銷20年的《常春藤英語從頭學》後,再一套經典英文學習好書,幫你解凍封存已久的英!文!記!憶!─新概念全方位英語
>>從零開始,追回你的英語力!

菜鳥、老鳥都一樣,只有專業還不夠!

菜鳥、老鳥都一樣,只有專業還不夠!
有好的英文能力,才能讓你在世界舞台上發光!
職場書系最低28%OFF

歡慶31週年慶 歡慶31週年慶,常春藤給你3+1獨特心法!雜誌訂閱優惠。訂閱半年就送「韓版大容量折疊旅行拉桿包」,訂一年則送「E-books U5 隨身防震收納包
 
     

拒絕骯髒便所!馬桶清潔4方法
想要維持馬桶亮潔如新的外表,可得平時就要好好清潔保養。以下小編為大家整理幾種,能夠有效清潔馬桶的汙垢,又不會危害環境的實用清潔方式,原來馬桶清潔簡單又輕鬆!

好黑好害羞!了解孕期乳房的各項變化
從懷孕初期開始,乳房會明顯變大,目的是為了讓寶寶有足夠的母奶可以喝,但變大的同時,可能伴隨著脹痛感,及乳暈變黑等問題。乳房各種變化因人而異,唯有清楚了解自己的乳房變化狀況,在孕期中就能與它和平共處。

 

Copyright c 2011 IVY LEAGUE ANALYTICAL ENGLISH All Rights Reserved. 版權所有,轉載必究。

與我們聯絡 電話:02-23317600 傳真:02-23810918

  免費電子報 | 著作權聲明 | 隱私權聲明 | 聯絡我們
udnfamily : news | video | money | stars | health | reading | mobile | data | NBA TAIWAN | blog | shopping