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Rome-Paris Dispute Is Enough to Make Mona Lisa Weep 義大利民粹主義者 為達文西跳腳

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讀紐時學英文
2019/02/22 第252期 訂閱/退訂看歷史報份
 
 

紐時周報精選 Rome-Paris Dispute Is Enough to Make Mona Lisa Weep 義大利民粹主義者 為達文西跳腳
The Whale Album: Why Do Humpbacks Sing? 鯨魚不只發出聲音 座頭鯨為什麼歌唱?

紐時周報精選
 

Rome-Paris Dispute Is Enough to Make Mona Lisa Weep 義大利民粹主義者 為達文西跳腳
文/Jason Horowitz
譯/李京倫

In a small showroom filled with replicas of Leonardo da Vinci masterpieces, Lucia Borgonzoni, Italy’s undersecretary for culture and a member of the right-wing League party, attested to the authenticity of her disgust with the French.

在一個滿是達文西名作複製品的小展間裡,義大利文化遺產部副部長、右翼「北方聯盟黨」成員陸琪亞.波爾宮佐尼,證明了她對法國人的厭惡真實不虛。

She accused France of trying to culturally appropriate Leonardo for a 2019 exhibition at the Louvre celebrating the 500th anniversary of his death. And that was just the beginning.France had treated Italy with “a lack of respect” and like a cultural “supermarket” by “sending a shopping list” of the works it wanted to borrow — essentially everything.

她指控法國企圖在文化上盜用達文西,好讓羅浮宮今年舉辦紀念達文西逝世500周年的展覽。事情還不止於此。

法國對義大利「缺乏尊重」,視之如文化「超市」,送來一張商借達文西作品的「採購清單」,幾乎什麼都要。

“Probably no other country would dare” to behave as France had, she said, warming to the topic as she faced a fake Mona Lisa in the Leonardo da Vinci Experience museum near the Vatican. She perused reproductions of Vitruvian Man and the Annunciation. “Let’s give them these,” she said with a laugh.

波爾宮佐尼說,「大概沒有哪個國家膽敢」跟法國一樣。她在梵蒂岡附近達文西體驗博物館內,面對一幅蒙娜麗莎複製品,聊起這個話題。她端詳達文西著名素描「維特魯威人」和油畫作品「聖母領報」複製品後,笑著說:「就給他們這些吧。」

Not much has been off limits as Borgonzoni’s hard-right League party pushes its “Italians First” agenda. Italian women are encouraged to have more babies. Migrants are shown the door. Matteo Salvini, the party leader, fills his social media feeds with posts about Italian pasta and wine.

波爾宮佐尼的極右派北方聯盟黨推動「義大利人優先」政策時,幾乎百無禁忌。他們鼓勵義大利女人生更多小孩。驅逐移民,黨魁薩維尼的社群媒體帳號則充斥著關於義大利麵和葡萄酒的貼文。

Nationalism — taboo for half a century following World War II and the fall of Mussolini — is suddenly in, as every possible political dispute is cast in chauvinist hues. Culture had long been a relatively neutral terrain. Not anymore. And deliberately so.

二次大戰結束、義大利獨裁者墨索里尼倒台後長達半個世紀,國家主義一直是禁忌,現在卻突然流行起來,每個可能發生的政治糾紛都染上國家至上主義的色彩。文化長期以來是相對中立的領域。如今則不復如此,而且是刻意使然。

“Being from the League, it’s our way of seeing the country, the society and the world,” Borgonzoni said of the party’s Italians First playbook.

波爾宮佐尼談到北方聯盟黨「義大利人優先」的核心思想時說:「這個觀念來自北方聯盟黨,是我們看待國家、社會和世界的方式。」

When it comes to Leonardo, the result is either an inelegant and amateurish faux pas, as her critics contend, or a political masterstroke before European Parliament elections in May. Either way, Borgonzoni has helped her party escalate tensions with France at a moment when Europe is already undergoing a dramatic political realignment.

在達文西這件事上,這樣的結果若不是批評者所指稱的粗俗且外行的失禮行為,就是在今年5月歐洲議會選舉前政治上的神來之筆。不論是哪一種,波爾宮佐尼都在歐洲正在經歷戲劇性政治重組之際,讓她的黨與法國的緊張關係加劇。

Along with the bureaucrats in Brussels, pro-European French President Emmanuel Macron has been the target par excellence of an Italian populist government that has repeatedly picked, and won, political fights on everything from migration to trade.

支持歐洲統合的法國總統馬克宏,跟布魯塞爾的歐盟官僚一樣,是義大利民粹政府的頭號攻擊目標,這個政府針對移民、貿易等各種議題一再挑起政治鬥爭,而且連戰皆捷。

“Surely our states are having a moment, not only in culture, of friction,” said Borgonzoni, “Surely the fact that Europe is going to vote next year has raised the tension” on a range of issues including, now, Leonardo.

波爾宮佐尼說:「我們國家之間此際當然有摩擦,不只在文化上。歐洲今年要選舉,當然使」包括目前達文西事件在內一系列議題的「緊張情況升級」。

Born in 1452 outside Vinci, centuries before the creation of the Italian state, Leonardo grew up in Florence, lived in Milan and stopped off in Rome before moving to France, where he died and was buried.

達文西1452年在文西鎮郊外出生,當時離義大利建國還有幾世紀。他成長於佛羅倫斯,長居於米蘭,在羅馬短暫停留後移居法國,在法國過世並下葬。

 

The Whale Album: Why Do Humpbacks Sing? 鯨魚不只發出聲音 座頭鯨為什麼歌唱?
文/Karen Weintraub
譯/張江寧

Sometimes a whale just wants to change its tune.

That’s one of the things researchers have learned recently by eavesdropping on whales in several parts of the world and listening for changes in their pattern and pitch.

有時,鯨魚就是想換個腔調。這是研究人員最近在世上某些海域監聽鯨魚發出聲音的模式和音高的變化後,新的發現之一。

Together, the new studies suggest that whales are not just whistling in the water, but constantly evolving a form of communication that we are only beginning to understand.

Most whales and dolphins vocalize, but dolphins and toothed whales mostly make clicking and whistling sounds. Humpbacks, and possibly bowheads, sing complex songs with repeated patterns, said Michael Noad, an associate professor in the Cetacean Ecology and Acoustics Laboratory at the University of Queensland in Australia.

整合後的這些研究指出,鯨魚不是只在海裡隨興哼出口哨般的聲音,而是不斷在發展一種我們才剛開始理解的溝通形式。澳洲昆士蘭大學鯨豚生態及聲響學實驗室的副教授諾德說,多數鯨豚會發出聲音,但海豚和齒鯨大多只會發出卡嗒、哨鳴聲。然而座頭鯨(又稱大翅鯨),可能還有弓頭鯨,卻會吟唱有重覆節奏模式的繁複歌曲。

Birds may broadcast their social hierarchy among song-sharing populations by allowing the dominant bird to pick the playlist and patterns. But how and why whales pass song fragments across hundreds of miles, and to thousands of animals, is far more mysterious.

The biggest question is why whales sing at all.

在共享歌曲的鳥群裡,鳥兒們會透過歌曲宣唱社會地位,讓居支配地位的那隻鳥挑選唱什麼和怎麼唱。然而座頭鯨如何把段段歌聲遠傳數百哩,傳給數以千計的鯨魚,又為何要這麼做?卻更要費解得多。最大的問題是,鯨魚到底為什麼要唱?

“The thing that always gets me out of bed in the morning is the function of the song,” Noad said. “I find humpback song fascinating from the point of view of how it’s evolved.”

The leading hypothesis is that male humpbacks — only the males sing — are trying to attract females. But they may also switch tunes when another male is nearby, apparently to assess a rival’s size and fitness, said Noad, who was the senior author of one of four new papers on whale songs.

諾德說:「鯨魚歌唱功用何在這問題總能讓我早上從床上跳起來。座頭鯨歌曲的演化過程讓我著迷。」四篇鯨歌相關論文之一的主要作者諾德說,最為人接受的假設是,雄性座頭鯨之所以唱——只有雄性座頭鯨會唱歌——是為了吸引雌性。但若附近另有一頭雄鯨時,牠們也會轉換曲調,顯然是為了評估對方的體型和健康狀態。

Why the humpbacks’ musical patterns tend to be more complex than those of other whales is also a bit murky. Noad suggested that the development may be the result of “runaway selection.”

為什麼和其他鯨魚相比,座頭鯨的歌曲更為繁複呢?這還不很清楚。但諾德認為這一趨向可能是「費雪性擇」的結果。

Early humpbacks with complex songs were so much more successful at mating that they gained a substantial evolutionary advantage over their brethren with simpler vocalizations. This led to some very large, sometimes very noisy animals.

在早期,唱複雜歌曲的座頭鯨遠比歌曲較單調的容易尋得伴侶,這給了他們不小的演化優勢。一些體型龐大,有時候還十分聒噪的鯨魚也從而出現。

In one of the new studies, led by scientists at the New York-based Wildlife Conservation Society, researchers tracked humpbacks singing along the east and west coasts of Africa, comparing songs sung by those off the coast of Gabon to those near Madagascar.

在一個前述研究裡,研究人員由總部位於紐約的國際野生生物保護學會的科學家帶隊,追蹤在非洲東西岸吟唱的座頭鯨,把加彭外海鯨角唱的歌拿來與馬達加斯加岸外鯨魚唱的做比較。

The study, published in the journal Royal Society Open Science, confirmed that the two populations interact, noting overlap in their vocalizations. The researchers recorded songs annually from 2001 to 2005 using hand-held hydrophones aboard boats.

這份刊登在皇家社會開放期刊上的研究證實,這兩群鯨魚會互動,並在兩群的歌曲裡找到相似之處。從2001到2005年,研究人員每年搭船出海以手持水下麥克風錄音。

“Male humpback whales within a population tend to sing the same song type, but it’s continuously changing and evolving over time,” said Melinda Rekdahl, the study’s first author and a marine conservation scientist with the wildlife society.

國際野生生物保護學會的海洋動物保護科學家、研究報告主要作者梅琳達·雷克達爾說:「同一鯨群裡的雄性座頭鯨往往唱著同一模式的歌,但也不斷改變演化。」

 

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