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What Should Be Done With the Women and Children of ISIS? 當戰士、自殺炸彈客、斬首者 伊斯蘭國孩子該如何安置?

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讀紐時學英文
2019/05/31 第265期 訂閱/退訂看歷史報份
 
 

紐時周報精選 What Should Be Done With the Women and Children of ISIS? 當戰士、自殺炸彈客、斬首者 伊斯蘭國孩子該如何安置?
A Book Revives the Novelist’s First Calling 馬奎斯:盼人們不是記得百年孤寂或諾貝爾獎 而是報紙

紐時周報精選
 

What Should Be Done With the Women and Children of ISIS? 當戰士、自殺炸彈客、斬首者 伊斯蘭國孩子該如何安置?
文/Vivian Yee
譯/陳韋廷

伊斯蘭國婦孺該如何安置?

Many of them were barely school age when their parents took them to the Islamic State group’s so-called caliphate in Iraq and Syria. Thousands of others were born there.

當他們被父母帶到伊斯蘭國在伊拉克及敘利亞建立的所謂哈里發國時,許多人幾乎還不到上學的年紀,而另有數以千計的人是在當地出生。

The children of the group’s followers are the most vulnerable of the Islamic State’s human leftovers — the remainders of the more than 40,000 foreign fighters and their families who came from 80 countries to help build the caliphate. Many are now detained in camps and prisons across eastern Syria, Iraq and Libya.

該組織追隨者的子女是伊斯蘭國剩下來的人中最脆弱的一群,他們是來自80國、幫忙建立哈里發國的4萬多名外國戰士及其家人殘餘的成員。目前,許多人被關押在敘利亞東部,伊拉克和利比亞各地的收容營和監獄裡。

“What have these kids done?” said Fabrizio Carboni, a Red Cross official, after witnessing the misery surrounding him on a recent visit to Al Hol camp in Syria. “Nothing.”

紅十字會官員法布里奇奧·卡爾波尼日前造訪敘利亞的阿霍難民營,在目睹周遭的苦難後說:「這些孩子做錯了什麼?啥也沒有。」

Yet even when it comes to the children, the foreign governments whose citizens are marooned in the camps and prisons have struggled with what to do with them.

然而,這些困處於難民營和監獄中的外國公民所屬國家的政府,即便是對兒童問題該如何處置,也傷透了腦筋。

The Islamic State group, researchers say, employed children as scouts, spies, cooks and bomb-planters, and sometimes as fighters and suicide bombers. Propaganda videos showed young children beheading and shooting prisoners.

研究人員表示,伊斯蘭國用兒童當斥侯、間諜、廚子和炸彈安裝者,有時還充當戰士與自殺炸彈客。宣傳影片上可以看到年幼兒童斬首並射殺囚犯。

Some have had years of ISIS indoctrination and, in the case of older boys, military training.

一些人已被伊斯蘭國教導多年,而年紀較大的男孩還接受了軍事訓練。

“They’re victims of the situation because they went against their will,” said Peter Neumann, director of the International Center for the Study of Radicalization at King’s College London, “but that doesn’t mean that they’re not, in some cases at least, a risk.”

倫敦國王學院激進化國際研究中心主任紐曼說:「他們是這種情況的受害者,因為他們違背了自己的意願,但這並不代表他們不會構成風險,至少在某些情況下風險是存在的。」

If figuring out what to do with the children is that complicated, deciding what to do with the women and men is even more difficult.

如果想清楚該如何處置孩子即已如此複雜,決定如何處置成年女性與男性可就更困難了。

There are at least 13,000 foreign ISIS followers being held in Syria, including 12,000 women and children. That number does not include the estimated 31,000 Iraqi women and children detained there. Another 1,400 are detained in Iraq.

敘利亞境內至少關押1萬3000名伊斯蘭國的外國追隨者,包括1萬2000名婦女與兒童,且此數字還不包含被關押在敘境、估計約3萬1000名的伊拉克婦女和兒童。另有1400人被拘留在伊拉克。

But only a handful of countries — including Russia, Kosovo, Kazakhstan, Indonesia and France — have intervened to bring back some of their citizens.

然而只有少數幾個國家已經介入,把一些國民接回去,包括俄羅斯、科索沃、哈薩克、印尼和法國。

The debate is more pressing than ever.

有關此事的討論此際比以往任何時候都更急迫。

In overflowing camps in eastern Syria, the wives and children of ISIS fighters who fled the last shreds of ISIS territory are dying of exposure, malnutrition and sickness. Children are too spent to speak. Women who have renounced the group live in dread of attacks from those who have not.

在敘利亞東部人滿為患的難民營內,逃離伊斯蘭國最後殘破領土的伊斯蘭國戰士的妻子與子女,正因寒冷、營養不良和疾病而死亡。孩子們衰弱到無法說話。已棄絕該組織的婦女則生活在害怕受未棄絕者攻擊的恐懼之中。

The local militias running the camps say they cannot detain other countries’ citizens forever.

管理難民營的當地民兵表示,他們無法永遠關押其他國家的公民。

Across the border in Iraq, government authorities are administering hasty justice to people accused of being Islamic State members, sentencing hundreds to death in trials that often last no longer than five minutes.

而在邊界那一邊的伊拉克,政府當局對被指控為伊斯蘭國成員者草率執法,在審判中判處數百人死刑,審判時間往往不超過5分鐘。

But most foreign governments are reluctant to take them back, leaving them international pariahs wanted by no one — not their home countries, not their jailers.

然而大部分外國政府都不願意把他們接回去,使他們淪為沒人要的國際賤民──祖國不要,拘禁他們的人也不要。

《說文解字看新聞》

伊斯蘭國的滅亡留下許多棘手問題,如何處置遭俘虜或戰死的聖戰士的妻小為其中之一,文中以leftovers形容這群殘留者。此字的單數形式除了可當名詞外主要當形容詞「殘留的」使用,須放在修飾的名詞前面,如leftover pizza。若表示「殘湯剩飯」通常用複數:Give the leftovers to the dog.

Maroon當動詞使用,意指「使無處可逃」,常用被動語態,形容詞指「栗色、褐紅色」,最為人熟知想必是搖滾天團魔力紅(Maroon 5)了吧!

倒數第三段的spent是「極度疲憊的」,同段片語live/be in dread of代表「持續擔心害怕」:She lives in dread of (=is continuously very afraid of) the disease returning.

 

A Book Revives the Novelist’s First Calling 馬奎斯:盼人們不是記得百年孤寂或諾貝爾獎 而是報紙
文/Dwight Garner
譯/李京倫

馬奎斯 更願留名於新聞業

Gabriel García Márquez, “Gabo” to his friends, lived for journalism. He wrote for newspapers and magazines his entire life, and he founded six publications himself. He once said, against the wisdom of the ages, “I do not want to be remembered for ‘One Hundred Years of Solitude,’ nor for the Nobel Prize, but for the newspapers.”

哥倫比亞文學家馬奎斯,朋友稱他「賈伯」,一生為新聞而活,終身為報章雜誌寫稿,自己也辦了六份刊物。他曾有違傳統智慧地說,「我希望人們記得我不是因為『百年孤寂』或諾貝爾獎,而是因為那些報紙」。

García Márquez (1927-2014) inhaled fresh ink the way the press critic A.J. Liebling did, as if it were cigar smoke. He called journalism “the best job in the world” and “a biological necessity of humanity.” He understood that newspapers and magazines not only deliver data but that they add, through commentary of all variety, to the gaiety of a society.

馬奎斯生於1927年,2014年過世,他像美國新聞評論家李伯齡一樣,把新鮮油墨當成雪茄的煙來吸。他說新聞業是「世上最好的工作」和「人類生理上的必需品」。他知道,報章雜誌不僅傳遞資訊,還透過各種評論,讓社會更歡樂。

A resonant new collection of García Márquez’s journalism, “The Scandal of the Century,” demonstrates how seriously he took reportage and what’s now sometimes called (would Liebling approve?) long-form narrative.

嶄新的馬奎斯新聞作品集「世紀醜聞」重磅登場,內容顯示他多麼嚴肅看待新聞報導,還有當今所謂長篇描述報導。(李伯齡會同意嗎?)

There are intricate, involving stories here about the death of a young woman who seemed to lead a double life; about the 1978 political siege of Nicaragua’s Palacio Nacional by the Sandinistas; and about the international efforts to save a young boy who needed a hard-to-find rabies serum raced to him within 12 hours.

這裡有些錯綜複雜、牽涉多方的故事:講一個似乎過著雙面人生的年輕女子之死;講1978年尼加拉瓜左翼政黨「桑定民族解放陣線」政治包圍國家文化宮;講國際社會努力挽救一個小男孩的生命,在12小時內把他需要卻很難找到的狂犬病血清飛速送給他。

These are articles that, in their confidence and grace, put the reader in mind of “The Story of a Shipwrecked Sailor,” the García Márquez book, first published in English in 1986, that was based on a series of articles he wrote for a Bogotá newspaper in 1955 in the voice of a Colombian sailor washed overboard from the deck of a destroyer.

這些文章自信優雅,讓讀者想起馬奎斯的「船難水手故事」一書,1986年英文版首次發行,以一名遭遇船難、從驅逐艦甲板沖入海中的哥倫比亞水手的口吻寫作,以1955年馬奎斯為波哥大一家報社撰寫的系列文章為基礎寫成。

Most of his journalism, like most of his fiction, is centered on his native Colombia. So many of the best pieces in “The Scandal of the Century,” however, are essays, unpretentious and witty meditations on topics like barbers and air travel and literary translation and movies.

馬奎斯多數新聞作品就像他大多數小說一樣,以他從小生長的哥倫比亞為中心,所以「世紀醜聞」裡許多最好的文章都是雜文,是對理髮師、航空旅行、文學翻譯和電影等主題樸實且富機趣的深刻沉思。

You get the sense that, were he allowed to start one last magazine from beyond the grave, García Márquez would edit a version of one of those casual publications, like The Spectator, The New Statesman or The Oldie, that the British do better than the rest of the world. Magazines, that is, composed entirely of commentary, the combined contents of whatever is on their columnists’ minds.

你知道的,假如馬奎斯在天之靈還能創辦最後一本雜誌,他會編出「旁觀者」、「新政治家」或「老骨頭」這類英國休閒雜誌,這方面英國人比世界其他地方的人在行。整本雜誌全由評論文章組成,匯集這些專欄作家的所思所想。

“The Scandal of the Century” comprises 50 articles, published between 1950 and 1984. It’s one of two new books that deal with García Márquez’s work and life. The other is “Solitude & Company,” a charming and rowdy if slight oral history of his life edited by Colombian journalist Silvana Paternostro and translated by Edith Grossman.

「世紀醜聞」集合50篇1950年到1984年發表的文章,是討論馬奎斯工作與生活的兩本新書之一。另一本是「孤寂與陪伴」,是關於馬奎斯一生的口述歷史,或許分量不重,卻迷人而熱鬧,由哥倫比亞記者席爾瓦娜.巴迭諾斯特羅編輯,艾迪絲.葛羅斯曼譯為英文。

 

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