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The Plight of Paris’s Riverside Booksellers 拯救巴黎獨特人文景觀:「綠色舊書攤」

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2019/05/28 第416期 訂閱/退訂看歷史報份直接訂閱

   
 

The Plight of Paris’s Riverside Booksellers  拯救巴黎獨特人文景觀:「綠色舊書攤」

by William Ryan

    

   Small, independent, secondhand booksellers have been part of the Parisian landscape for centuries. The city’s present-day free-spirited book peddlers trace the roots of their tradition back to the era of bohemian intellectualism, of __1__ the French remain proud. Some 250 book vendors, or bouquinistes, occupy trademark green stalls along the banks of the beautiful river Seine, making up “the world’s largest open-air bookshop.” An integral part of Parisian culture, these bouquinistes are obliged to be open at least four days a week, plying their wares rain or shine, summer or winter. But all is not well. In this age of social media and online games, sales of used books have plummeted. __2__ visitor numbers since the 2015 Paris terrorist attacks and a general lack of interest in literature among youth are also part of the problem. Some sellers have __3__ selling souvenirs alongside their books just to eke out a living. But help for the bouquinistes could be on the way.
  The Cultural Association of Paris Bouquinistes, with broad popular and political support, has launched a __4__ to be granted UNESCO World Heritage intangible cultural heritage status. The long, demanding ordeal, if successful, would enhance their recognition and hopefully translate to increased book sales. If they ultimately fail, the vendors would be no worse off for the publicity. Ironically, some booksellers strongly oppose the UNESCO initiative __5__ a positive outcome could mean they would no longer be permitted to sell souvenirs. Either way, their fate will remain uncertain for years to come.
1. (A) what (B) that (C) whom (D) which
2. (A) Decline (B) Declining (C) Declined (D) To decline
3. (A) resorted to (B) recovered from (C) refused to (D) refrained from
4. (A) protest (B) survey (C) campaign (D) demonstration
5. (A) in order that (B) for fear that (C) as soon as (D) as long as

 

1. … trace the roots of their tradition back to the era of bohemian intellectualism, of which the French remain proud.
理由
a. 本題測試關係代名詞 which 的用法:
which 是用以代替除「人」以外一切事物的關係代名詞,使用時其前要有先行詞(即名詞)。此外,which 在所引導的形容詞子句中要作主詞或受詞,否則 which 之前一定要有介詞。
• Alan’s duties at work include responding to customer complaints, of which he is not very fond.
艾倫的工作職責包括回應顧客的抱怨,這是他非常不喜歡的一件事。
b. 空格前有名詞 bohemian intellectualism(波西米亞知性主義)及介詞 of,空格後為一完整子句,根據上述 a 點可知,空格內應置入可代替事物的關係代名詞 which,以引導形容詞子句修飾前面的先行詞,故 (D) 為正選;(C) whom 為表人的關係代名詞,故不選。
c. what 為複合關係代名詞,使用時前面不可有先行詞,而 that 作關係代名詞時其前不可有逗點,故 (A)、(B) 均不可選。

2. Declining visitor numbers since the 2015 Paris terrorist attacks and a general lack of interest in literature among youth are also…
理由
a. decline vi. 下降 & vt. 婉拒,拒絕
declining a. 下降的;衰退的
• The number of frogs in the lake has declined since an alligator moved in.
自從一隻鱷魚進駐後,湖裡的青蛙數量便減少了。
• The country is taking steps to boost its declining birthrate.
該國正採取措施提高逐漸下降的出生率。
b. 空格後有對等連接詞 and 與名詞詞組 a general lack of interest in literature among youth(年輕人對文學普遍缺乏興趣),得知空格所在位置亦為一名詞詞組以形成對等,而後方的 be 動詞 are 為本句的主要動詞,故空格應置入形容詞或分詞以修飾 visitor numbers(遊客數量)。
c. 選項 (B) Declining 為形容詞,置入後符合語意,故為正選;(C) Declined(被拒絕的)雖可作形容詞用,惟語意不合,故不選。

3. Some sellers have resorted to selling souvenirs alongside their books…
理由
a. (A) resort to N/V-ing  訴諸……(手段、方法等)
• Ken ran out of cash and had to resort to using his credit card.
阿肯把現金花光了,所以必須刷卡付帳。
(B) recover from…  從……中復原
• Beth recovered from her spinal injury and is now running in marathons.
貝絲的脊椎創傷好了,現在能去跑馬拉松了。
(C) refuse to V  拒絕做……
• The spokesman refused to comment on that issue.
該發言人拒絕對那項議題做出評論。
(D) refrain from V-ing  抑制∕克制(做)……
• It is not easy for small children to refrain from talking and moving around.
要小孩子不說話和不亂跑不是件容易的事。
b. 根據語意,一些賣家會「採取」在書旁擺放紀念品一起販售的「方法」以維持生計,故 (A) 為正選。

4. … has launched a campaign to be granted UNESCO World Heritage intangible cultural heritage status.
理由
a. (A) protest n. 抗議(行動)
• We held a protest to raise awareness of animal abuse.
我們發起抗議活動以喚起對動物虐待的認知。
(B) survey n.(民意)調查
• The company conducted a market survey before launching its new product.
這家公司在推出新產品前進行了一項市場調查。
(C) campaign n.(社會、宣傳)運動
• The groups are going to launch a campaign against corruption.
那些團體準備要發起肅貪運動。
(D) demonstration n. 示威
• The angry citizens launched a demonstration in front of city hall.
憤怒的民眾在市政府前發動示威活動。
b. 根據語意,巴黎舊書攤文化協會發起一項「運動」尋求獲得聯合國教科文組織世界遺產非物質文化遺產的地位,故 (C) 項應為正選。

5. Ironically, some booksellers strongly oppose the UNESCO initiative for fear that a positive outcome could mean they would no longer be permitted to sell souvenirs.
理由
a. (A) in order that + S + V  如此∕以便……
• Karen goes swimming regularly in order that she stays healthy.
凱倫定期去游泳以保持健康。
(B) for fear that + S + V  唯恐……
• Ruth stood still for fear that the dog might bite her.
露絲站著不動,唯恐那隻狗會咬她。
(C) as soon as + S + V  一……就……
• As soon as I finished the job, I went home.
我一做完工作就回家。
(D) as long as + S + V  只要……
• I will forgive you as long as you give me a reasonable explanation.
只要你給我合理的解釋,我就原諒你。
b. 空格前提及,有些書商強烈反對這項倡議,由此推知,理由應是他們「唯恐」正面的結果可能表示他們無法再販售紀念品了,故 (B) 項應為正選。

1. plight n. 困境
• Everyone who made donations helped the plight of the flood victims.
捐款的每個人都幫助改善水災災民的困境。

2. peddler n. 小販
peddle vt. 兜售;叫賣
• Nick travels around the country peddling his products.
尼克在國內四處遊走兜售他的產品。

3. trademark n.(人或物的)標記;商標
• The actor is usually seen wearing his trademark baseball cap.
該演員經常戴著他的招牌棒球帽亮相。
• The company registered its trademark to prevent it from being copied by its competitors.
該公司註冊其商標以防止被競爭對手仿冒。

4. integral a. 不可或缺的
be integral to N/V-ing  對……是不可或缺的
• Happy employees are integral to a company’s success.
快樂的員工對一家公司的成功來說不可或缺。

5. plummet vi. 暴跌,急遽下降
• Banana prices have plummeted in recent months.
香蕉的價格近幾個月來暴跌。

6. grant vt.(尤指官方或正式地)准予;給予
be granted sth  被給予某物
grant sb sth  給予某人某物
• The university granted Emma a scholarship.
那所大學給予艾瑪一筆獎學金。

7. ordeal n. 嚴峻考驗,苦難
• Many people feel that it’s an ordeal to have to give a speech in front of others.
很多人覺得必須在眾人面前演說是一種煎熬。

8. enhance vt. 提高;加強
• The music at the French restaurant enhances the atmosphere.
這家法國餐廳的音樂增添其情調。

9. ultimately adv. 最後,最終
• An unbalanced diet will ultimately lead to physical illness.
不均衡的飲食最終會導致身體疾病。

10. ironically adv. 諷刺地
• Ironically, Lily ended up losing all her money by following her financial advisor’s suggestion.
諷刺的是,莉莉聽從理財顧問的建議,到頭來卻賠光了所有錢。

11. oppose vt. 反對,反抗
oppose N/V-ing  反對……
= object to N/V-ing
= be opposed to N/V-ing
• George opposed adopting Tim’s proposal because he did not think it was feasible.
喬治反對採納提姆的提案,因為他認為那行不通。

12. initiative n. 倡議;率先,主動
take the initiative  採取主動
• Charles is shy and never takes the initiative in anything.
查爾斯很害羞,從不會主動做任何事。

 

bohemian a. 波西米亞的
intellectualism n. 知性主義
stall n. 攤位
open-air a. 露天的
ply vt. 兜售
wares n. 商品(恆用複數)
terrorist n. 恐怖分子
souvenir n. 紀念品
heritage n. 遺產
intangible a. 無形的
 tangible a. 有形的;實際的
demanding a. 嚴峻的;費力的;苛求的
recognition n. 認可;肯定
publicity n. 宣傳;名氣;公眾的注意

1. trace… back to…  將……追溯至……
• Tina can trace her family history back to the 18th century.
蒂娜的家族史可以追溯至十八世紀。

2. make up…  構成∕組成……
• Asians make up 4% of the US population.
亞裔占美國人口的 4%。

3. be obliged to V  有義務要……
oblige vt. 使有義務
• Paul feels that he will be obliged to take care of his parents when they get older.
保羅覺得自己有義務在父母年老時照顧他們。

4. all is well / all is not well  情況很好∕情況不好
• All is not well with Jack’s company.
傑克的公司狀況不太好。

5. be on the way  在進行中;在途中
• Economists fear a recession is on the way.
經濟學家擔心經濟衰退即將來臨。

6. translate to / into…  轉變成……(特定狀態或結果)
• Recent serious economic problems are beginning to translate to a demand for reforms.
近期嚴重的經濟問題開始轉變成對改革的要求。

7. be worse off  (經濟狀況)更差;每況愈下
be better off  (經濟狀況)更佳;處境變好
• Danny was worse off after he got fired.
丹尼被開除後經濟狀況就每況愈下。
• Tom is better off now that he has started moonlighting as a taxi driver.
由於湯姆已經開始兼差開計程車,他的日子好過多了。
*moonlight vi. 兼差

eke out a living / an existence  勉強維持生活
eke vt. 增加,補充
• Terry struggled to eke out a living on his tiny income.
泰瑞努力靠自己的微薄收入勉強度日。
————————————————————————-
「勉強度日∕維持生活」的不同說法:
a. live from hand to mouth  生活拮据,勉強糊口
• Struggling actors often live from hand to mouth.
辛苦奮鬥的演員經常過著拮据的生活。
b. make ends meet  使收支相抵,勉強維持生計
• Despite working two jobs, David can hardly make ends meet.
儘管兼了兩份工作,大衛幾乎還是入不敷出。
c. keep the wolf from the door  勉強維持生計
• As a student, Molly took an evening job to keep the wolf from the door.
茉莉求學時兼做一份夜間工作以勉強維持生計。
d. feel the pinch  (賺錢不如以往多而)感到拮据
pinch n. & vt. 捏,擰
• Lucy’s employer was starting to feel the pinch and laid off half of the employees.
露西的僱主開始覺得經營困難而資遣了一半的員工。
e. scrape by / along  勉強維持生計
scrape vi. 勉強獲得
• Larry lost his job, so his family had to scrape by on one small salary.
賴瑞丟了工作,所以一家人只好靠一份微薄的薪水勉強過活。

 

拯救巴黎獨特人文景觀:「綠色舊書攤」
  

  幾個世紀以來,小型的獨立二手書商已然成為巴黎風景的一部分。這座城市現今無拘無束的書籍小販將其傳統的根源追溯至法國人仍感到驕傲的波西米亞知性主義(編按:將人類的精神(靈魂)三分為「理性」、「意志」、「慾望」,重視知性與理性。也稱作主智論、主知論)時代。約有兩百五十家書攤(或稱為「綠色舊書攤」)沿著美麗的塞納河沿岸占據著指標性的綠色攤位,構成了「世界上最大的露天書店」。這些綠色舊書攤是巴黎文化中不可或缺的一部分,不論晴雨及冬夏,他們一週須至少營業四日販售自己的商品。但目前狀況並不太妙。在這個社交媒體和網路遊戲的時代裡,二手書籍的銷量驟減。自 2015 年巴黎恐攻事件以來下降的遊客數量,以及年輕人對文學普遍缺乏興趣也是問題的一部分。一些賣家採取在書旁擺放紀念品一起販售的方法,僅僅為了維持生計。不過對於綠色舊書攤的幫助可能正在展開。
  巴黎舊書攤文化協會在廣泛的民眾和政治支持下發起了一項運動,尋求獲得聯合國教科文組織世界遺產的非物質文化遺產地位。這個漫長而艱鉅的考驗如果成功,將會提高他們的認可度,並有望使書籍的銷售量成長。如果最終失敗了,這些宣傳也不會讓書攤的情況變得比現在更糟。諷刺的是,有些書商強烈反對聯合國教科文組織的倡議,唯恐正面的結果可能意味著他們將不再被允許販售紀念品。無論是哪種結果,他們的命運在未來幾年都仍是未知數。
答案:
1. D 2. B 3. A 4. C 5. B

 
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