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東海岸:原住民文化(一)

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東海岸:原住民文化(一)The East Coast—Indigenous Culture (1)

The East Coast—Indigenous Culture

One of the main attractions of Hualien and Taitung is the indigenous culture that has managed to survive to this day. Unfortunately, there is also a danger that increasing tourism may end up destroying this culture.

There are several indigenous tribes on the east coast: the Paiwan, Amis, Puyuma, Bunun, Rukai, Sakizaya, Kavalan, Truku, and Tao. These ancient cultures are still influencing life to this day. Their festivals are widely celebrated, especially the Amis Harvest Festival that is held in July or August. It is celebrated in each Amis village and represents a cultural rite of passage where boys become men. The festival itself is
a grand celebration with dancing, singing, drinking, and eating.

To this day, the Bunun people still speak their own language. They were the only tribe to develop a calendar using icons. They too celebrate a harvest festival that includes the singing of the Pasibutbut or "prayer for an abundant millet harvest" The Bunun also hold an "ear-shooting ceremony" which emphasizes the teaching of hunting skills to young boys. It takes place every April.

The Tao live on Lanyu (Orchid Island) in Taitung County. They are well known for their carved boats, silver items, and pottery. Since they live on an island that is fairly far away from Taiwan, it has been easier for their culture to survive. However, they are still affected by the modern world. The Tao people traditionally lived in underground houses until the government started a program to move them into concrete houses in the 1960s. Unfortunately, a concrete house is not as well suited to the climate as the traditional houses. Traditional houses were very good at keeping out the heat in summer and the cold in winter.

There are many ways to enjoy indigenous culture on the east coast. Hualien is home to an indigenous woodcarving museum. In Taitung, there is the annual Festival of Austronesian Cultures which tries to bridge the gap between local indigenous and Austronesian cultures. There is also the National Museum of Prehistory in Taitung. This museum explores early indigenous and Taiwanese prehistory before the arrival of the Europeans and Chinese.


東海岸:原住民文化

花蓮和台東的主要景點之一,就是當地保存至今的原住民文化。可惜隨著觀光客數量日益增加,原住民文化的保存也面臨到了危機。

東部有許多原住民部落:排灣族、阿美族、卑南族、布農族、魯凱族、撒奇萊雅族、噶瑪蘭族、太魯閣族和達悟族。這些古老的文化至今仍影響著人們的生活。他們的慶典都會大肆慶祝,尤其是每年七、八月舉行的阿美族豐年祭。每一個阿美族的村落都會慶祝豐年祭,並舉行男孩的成年禮。慶典本身就是一場包含歌唱、舞蹈、飲酒和美食的盛宴。

直到現在,布農族仍使用自己的語言。他們是唯一有曆法的部落,使用圖像記事。他們也舉行豐年祭,並在祭典吟唱「八部合音」,或稱「祈禱小米豐收歌」。布農族還有一種「打耳祭」,強調教導年輕男孩狩獵技巧,在每年四月舉行。

達悟族住在台東縣的蘭嶼島,他們的拼板舟、銀器和陶藝很出名。由於他們住在離台的小島上,因此要保存自己的文化較容易。然而,他們還是受到現代社會的影響。達悟族人傳統上住在深穴式地下建築,但政府在1960 年代開始將他們遷入混凝土房屋。不幸地是,混凝土房屋不像傳統建築那樣適合當地的氣候。傳統建築可以在夏季隔絕熱氣而冬季則可隔絕寒冷,效果非常好。

東部有許多地方可以欣賞到原住民文化。花蓮有一座原住民木雕博物館。台東每年舉行南島文化節,試圖連結當地原住民文化與南島文化。台東還有一座國立台灣史前文化博物館,展出歐洲人和中國人來到台灣之前,原住民與台灣人的史前文化。

──────選自《用英文介紹台灣:實用觀光導遊英語 〔彩圖三版〕》
 
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