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Figs: More than Just a Tasty Treat 宗教與文化的碩「果」

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2019/03/26 第407期 訂閱/退訂看歷史報份直接訂閱

   
 

Figs: More than Just a Tasty Treat  宗教與文化的碩「果」

by Brian Foden

    

  Of all the plants known to mankind, the fig has perhaps had the most diverse significance throughout human history. Originally found only in parts of the Middle East and western Asia, it is currently grown around the world, and there are now more than 750 fig species. Sweet and delicious, the fig is a healthy and __1__ treat full of vitamins, minerals, and fiber. In addition to their use as an important food source for people and animals, figs have been used for a variety of other purposes. These applications include making medicine from the leaves, bark, and roots of the fig tree to treat different ailments. __2__ practical uses, the fig tree has also had a deep symbolic and spiritual significance in various world religions and cultures.
  In Christianity, the fig tree plays a prominent role as the first tree __3__ in the Bible. Although most people consider the “forbidden fruit” that Eve took a bite out of in the Garden of Eden to be an apple, some religious scholars believe it was actually a fig. Similarly, in Buddhist philosophy, it was a fig tree __4__ Buddha was sitting under when he gained enlightenment. In some countries, such as Papua New Guinea and Bolivia, it is regarded as bad luck for a person to cut down fig trees because doing so __5__ evil spirits. So, the next time you eat a tasty fig, take a moment to remember that you are enjoying a fruit with a long history of cultural, spiritual, and practical importance.
1. (A) mechanical  (B) responsible  (C) poisonous  (D) nutritious
2. (A) Instead of  (B) Apart from  (C) In return for  (D) With regard to
3. (A) specifies  (B) specifying  (C) specified  (D) would specify
4. (A) where  (B) that  (C) how  (D) why
5. (A) releases  (B) escapes  (C) predicts  (D) approves

 

1. Sweet and delicious, the fig is a healthy and nutritious treat full of vitamins, minerals, and fiber.
理由
a. (A) mechanical a. 機械的
•The flight was canceled due to mechanical problems.
該航班因機械故障而取消。
(B) responsible a. 負責任的
be responsible for…  負責……
•I’m responsible for taking care of the plants in this building.
我負責照料這棟大樓的盆栽。
(C) poisonous a. 有毒的
= toxic a.
•Those food products were taken off the shelves and labeled as poisonous.
那些食品被下架並標示有毒。
(D) nutritious a. 營養豐富的
•Everyone benefits from regular exercise, rest, and a nutritious diet.
每個人都能從規律的運動、休息及營養的飲食中獲益。
b. 根據語意,無花果是一種富含維生素、礦物質和纖維質的健康「營養」食物,故 (D) 項應為正選。

2. Apart from practical uses, the fig tree has also had a deep symbolic and spiritual significance in various world religions and cultures.
理由
a. (A) instead of…  而非∕不要……
•Instead of studying abroad, John chose to go to graduate school in Taiwan.
約翰沒去留學,反而選擇在臺灣唸研究所。
(B) apart from…  除了……尚有……
= aside from…
= in addition to…
•Apart from going to the karaoke, we also treated Sam to dinner for his birthday.
除了去唱 KTV 外,我們還請山姆吃晚餐來為他慶生。
(C) in return for…  作為……的回報
•My mom gave Mrs. Chen homemade cookies in return for her kind help.
我媽媽送陳太太自製餅乾以報答她的好心幫忙。
(D) with / in regard(s) to…  關於……
•With regard to our honeymoon destination, I would prefer to go to a tropical island.
關於我們蜜月旅行的地點,我比較想去一座熱帶島嶼。
b. 空格前一句提及無花果的應用層面,空格後說明它具有宗教及文化中的象徵與精神意義,可知「除了」實際用途之外,無花果「還有」其他重要性,故 (B) 項應為正選。

3. In Christianity, the fig tree plays a prominent role as the first tree specified in the Bible.
理由
a. specify vt. 明確指出,具體說明
•Remember to specify your size when ordering clothes online.
線上訂購衣服時記得要詳細標註你的尺寸。
b. 原句實為:
In Christianity, the fig tree plays a prominent role as the first tree that was specified in the Bible.
c. 在形容詞子句中,若關係代名詞作主詞且其前無逗點時(即限定修飾),可將該形容詞子句化簡成分詞片語。首先將關係代名詞刪除,之後的動詞變成現在分詞;若動詞為 be 動詞,變成現在分詞 being 後,可將 being 省略。
d. 根據上述,將關係代名詞 that 刪除並將 be 動詞 was 變成現在分詞 being 後再予以省略,省略後即成本句,故 (C) 項應為正選。

4. Similarly, in Buddhist philosophy, it was a fig tree that Buddha was sitting under when he gained enlightenment.
理由
a. 本題測試 it is / was 引導的強勢句構用法:
it is / was + 名詞 / 代名詞 + 關係代名詞 who / whom / which 引導的形容詞子句
*此處的 who、whom 及 which 均可用 that 取代。
•It was Wayne’s mean words which / that hurt Natalie.
就是偉恩惡毒的話語傷了娜塔莉的心。
b. 空格前有 it was 及名詞詞組 a fig tree(一棵無花果樹),且根據上述用法,(B) 項應為正選。

5. In some countries, such as Papua New Guinea and Bolivia, it is regarded as bad luck for a person to cut down fig trees because doing so releases evil spirits.
理由
a. (A) release vt. 釋放;解放
•Exercising every day releases a lot of built-up tension.
每天運動可以釋放許多長久以來累積的緊張。
(B) escape vt. & vi. 逃脫,逃離
escape from…  從……逃離
•We were lucky to escape that car accident without any injuries.
我們很幸運能毫髮無傷地逃過那場車禍。
•However hard it tried, the bird couldn’t escape from the cage.
這隻鳥無論多麼努力嘗試,仍無法逃出鳥籠。
(C) predict vt. 預測,預言
•Dad predicted that I would win the contest, and he was right.
老爸預測我會贏得這次的比賽,結果他是對的。
(D) approve vt. 批准,認可 & vi. 贊同
approve of…  贊成∕同意……
•The plan must be approved by the committee before it can be carried out.
這項計畫必須先獲得委員會的批准才能執行。
•My parents didn’t approve of the idea that I wanted to become a model.
我父母不贊成我想成為模特兒的想法。
b. 根據語意,在如巴布亞紐幾內亞和玻利維亞的國家中,人們認為砍伐無花果樹會帶來厄運,因為這麼做會「釋放」出邪靈,故 (A) 項應為正選。

1. a variety of…  各式各樣的……
•Our company publishes a variety of educational books.
我們公司出版各種不同的教育用書。

2. take a bite (out) of…  咬一口……
•The princess took a bite of the poisonous apple and then died.
公主咬了一口毒蘋果之後就死了。

3. be regarded as N/Adj.  被認為(是)……
= be viewed as N/Adj.
= be seen as N/Adj.
= be thought of as N/Adj.
= be looked upon as N/Adj.
•Harvard is regarded as one of the most prestigious universities in the world.
哈佛大學被公認為世上最具名望的大學之一。
•The doctor is thought of as an authority in the field of cancer treatment.
這位醫生被視為癌症治療領域的權威。

1. diverse a. 多元的,多樣的
•The city’s diverse population makes life colorful.
這座城市的人口多樣性讓生活多采多姿。

2. significance n. 重要性;意義
significant a. 重大的,重要的
•The eyewitness’ testimony was of great significance in convicting the thief.
那名目擊證人的證詞對定罪該竊賊極具重要性。
•Shakespeare is one of the most significant writers of all time.
莎士比亞是史上最重要的作家之一。

3. originally adv. 起初,原先
•Dana decided to have her baby at the hospital as she had originally planned.
黛娜決定照原先計畫在醫院生寶寶。

4. currently adv. 目前,現在
•Our manager is currently on a business trip to Hong Kong and will be back in a week.
我們經理目前在香港出差,一星期後就會回來。

5. application n. 應用,用途
•The application of the new data led to the success of the project.
這些新資料的運用使得這項企劃得以成功。

6. practical a. 實際的,實用的;實務的
practically adv. 實際地
Practically speaking, S + V  說得實際一點,……
•This job calls for at least five years of practical experience.
這份工作需要至少五年的實務經驗。
•Practically speaking, Jason isn’t cut out for the job.
講得實際一點,傑森無法勝任這份工作。
*be cut out for…  有能力從事……

7. symbolic a. 象徵的
be symbolic of…  象徵……
•The ring I gave you is symbolic of my love.
我送給妳的戒指象徵我的愛。

8. prominent a. 重要的;著名的
•A prominent designer is coming to our school, and everyone is excited.
一位名設計師即將蒞臨本校,因此大家都很興奮。

9. philosophy n. 哲學;哲理
•Andy majored in art and minored in philosophy.
安迪主修藝術,輔修哲學。

10. enlightenment n. 領悟;啟蒙
enlighten vt. 啟發
enlighten sb on sth  啟發某人某事
•During her trip to India, Sandy visited the spot where Buddha had attained enlightenment.
珊蒂在印度之旅期間造訪佛陀頓悟的地點。
•Mike’s lecture enlightened us on the importance of environmental protection.
麥克的講座啟發了我們對環境保護重要性的認知。

fig n. 無花果
fiber n. 纖維
ailment n. 疾病(尤指小病)
Christianity n. 基督教
the forbidden fruit  禁果;被禁止的事物
the Garden of Eden  伊甸園
Buddhist a. 佛教的 & n. 佛教徒
 Buddhism n. 佛教

sth be used for (doing) sth  某物被用來做……(之用)
•Lime is a white substance that can be used for making cement.
石灰是一種白色物質,可用來製造水泥。
————————————————————————-
以下介紹 use 作動詞及 used 作形容詞的常見用法:
a. sth be used as N  某物被用來作為……
•Photos and videos can be used as useful teaching aids.
照片和影片可作為實用的教學輔助用具。
b. sth be used to V  某物被用來做……
•That special pair of scissors is used to cut carpet.
那把特別的剪刀是用來剪地毯的。
c. use up…  用光∕耗盡……
•Tim used up all his money, so he had to borrow some to pay his rent.
提姆把錢全花完了,所以他必須借錢來付房租。
d. sb be used to N/V-ing  某人習慣做……
= sb be accustomed to N/V-ing
*此處的 used 及 accustomed 均作形容詞用,表「習慣的」,之後的 to 是介詞,表「針對」,因此之後必須接名詞或動名詞。
•Frank is used to taking a shower before going to work.
法蘭克習慣上班前先沖個澡。
e. used to V  過去曾經∕經常……
*used to V 表示過去常做某件事,但現在已經不這樣做了。
•Kelvin used to smoke like a chimney, but he finally quit last month.
凱爾文以前是老菸槍,但他上個月終於戒菸了。
*smoke like a chimney  菸抽個不停

宗教與文化的碩「果」
  

  在人類已知的所有植物中,無花果可能在整個人類歷史中具有最多元的重要性。最初只能在中東和西亞的部分地區找到無花果的蹤跡,不過目前在世界各地都有栽種,現有七百五十多個無花果品種。無花果甜美可口,是一種富含維生素、礦物質和纖維質的健康營養食物。除了作為人類及動物一個重要食物來源的用途之外,無花果還用於各種其他目的。這些應用包括使用無花果樹的葉子、樹皮以及根部製藥以治療不同的病痛。除了實際用途之外,無花果樹在世界上的各種宗教和文化中也具有深刻的象徵和精神意義。
  在基督教中,無花果樹因作為聖經中第一棵被明確指稱的樹而扮演著重要的角色。雖然大多數人認為夏娃在伊甸園中咬了一口的「禁果」是蘋果,但一些宗教學者認為它實際上是無花果。同樣地,在佛教哲學中,佛陀正是在一棵無花果樹下打坐時頓悟。在一些如巴布亞紐幾內亞和玻利維亞的國家中,人們認為砍伐無花果樹會帶來厄運,因為這麼做會釋放出邪靈。因此,當你下次品嚐美味的無花果時,花點時間想想你其實正在享受一種在文化、精神以及實際層面上都擁有悠久歷史的果實吧。
答案:
1. D 2. B 3. C 4. B 5. A

 
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學英文,讓工作與生活雙贏!
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工作量大到無法好好休息嗎?
休假不知做什麼,乾脆回去工作…
但,
減少玩樂真的會更成功嗎?

技法 X 心法

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滿1200即送好禮
 
     

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