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When Less Is More 少即是多 微型機器人拯救世界

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2019/02/26 第404期 訂閱/退訂看歷史報份直接訂閱

   
 

When Less Is More  少即是多 微型機器人拯救世界

by Bruce E. Bagnell

    

  You may not be familiar with the US agency DARPA (Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency), but you are no doubt familiar with some of the agency’s accomplishments. Since DARPA is under the Department of Defense, you may think their cutting-edge technological success must have something to do with war. You would be only partially correct. Take the internet __1__. Yes, that was one of DARPA’s projects. How about humanoid robots? Though they were at first a science-fiction creation, DARPA has brought them to life. Now the agency has set its sights on the miniaturization of robots. The Robot Olympics, featuring one- to two-centimeter-sized robots, is set to __2__ in March 2019. The new DARPA program called SHRIMP (Short-Range Independent Microbiotic Platforms) shows that even the military has a __3__ of humor.
  Smaller can sometimes be much better. The advantages of small-scale machines are __4__: they are cheaper, more easily hidden or disguised, and programmable to perform many tasks. Powered by tiny batteries and computer microchips, they can find and relay back to their handlers important information. In peacetime, they may be used in search-and-rescue operations after natural disasters or for inspecting dangerous environments. The Robot Olympics will test private companies’ inventions to see __5__ mini-robot can jump the farthest, lift the most weight, and maneuver the best. Winning entries may receive government contracts to further develop and apply these tiny miracle workers to medicine, surveillance, sensory improvement, and more.
1. (A) by accident  (B) for example  (C) off the record  (D) in some cases
2. (A) hand out  (B) check in  (C) pull over  (D) kick off
3. (A) basis  (B) taste  (C) sense  (D) breath
4. (A) obvious  (B) efficient  (C) frequent  (D) doubtful
5. (A) each  (B) their  (C) which  (D) whether

 

1. Take the internet for example.
理由
a. (A) by accident  意外地;無意間
= accidentally adv.
•Tina reached for the milk but knocked it over by accident.
蒂娜伸手去拿牛奶,卻不小心打翻了。
(B) for example  舉例來說
take… for example  舉……為例
•Take Mom for example. She’s very traditional.
就拿媽媽當作例子吧。她是一位非常傳統的女性。
(C) off the record  不供發表的;私下的
•Don’t publish what I said today—it’s off the record.
不要公開我今天說的話 ── 這是不許對外公布的。
(D) in some cases  在某些情況下
•Use this medication with care. In some cases, it may have side effects on the liver.
使用這種藥物要謹慎。在某些情況下,它可能會對肝臟造成副作用。
b. 根據語意,就舉網際網路「為例」吧,且 “take… for example” 為固定用法,故 (B) 項應為正選。

2. The Robot Olympics, featuring one- to two-centimeter-sized robots, is set to kick off in March 2019.
理由
a. (A) hand out… / hand… out  發放∕分發……
•Jimmy got a part-time job handing out flyers in front of the store.
吉米找到一份在商家前發傳單的兼職工作。
(B) check in  辦理登機∕住房手續
•You’d better check in at least one hour before the plane takes off.
你最好在飛機起飛前至少一小時先辦理登機。
(C) pull over  (使車輛)停靠在路邊
•Joseph pulled over to the side of the road because he had a flat tire.
喬瑟夫把車子停到路邊,因為車子的輪胎沒氣了。
(D) kick off  開始
•The game kicked off right after the parade of nations.
各國代表隊遊行之後,比賽便接著開打。
b. 根據語意,奧林匹克機器人大賽預計於 2019 年三月「揭幕」,故 (D) 項應為正選。

3. The new DARPA program called SHRIMP (Short-Range Independent Microbiotic Platforms) shows that even the military has a sense of humor.
理由
a. (A) basis n. 基礎,基本成分
on the basis of…  以……為基準,根據……
•The decision to give us a raise was made on the basis of our work performance.
是否決定幫我們加薪是以我們的工作表現為考量。
(B) taste n. 愛好
have a taste for…  愛好……
•Tim has a taste for expensive clothes.
提姆喜歡穿昂貴的衣服。
(C) sense n. 感覺;意識
a sense of…  ……感
a sense of humor / direction  幽默∕方向感
•Bob doesn’t have a good sense of direction, so he never drives without his GPS.
鮑伯的方向感不好,所以他開車一定會用衛星導航系統。
(D) breath n. 呼吸
catch one’s breath  某人喘口氣
•Give me a few minutes to catch my breath before you ask me questions.
在你問我問題之前,給我幾分鐘喘口氣吧。
b. 空格前有動詞 has(有)及不定冠詞 a,空格後有介詞 of 及名詞 humor(幽默),得知空格應置 sense 以形成 “a sense of humor” 的固定用法,故 (C) 項應為正選。

4. The advantages of small-scale machines are obvious: they are cheaper, more easily hidden or disguised, and programmable to perform many tasks.
理由
a. (A) obvious a. 明顯的,顯見的
•It is obvious that Greg didn’t sleep well last night.
葛瑞格顯然昨晚沒睡好。
(B) efficient a. 有效率的
•The boss likes Kate because she is efficient.
老闆很喜歡凱特,因為她很有效率。
(C) frequent a. 經常的
•The politician made frequent attacks on his opponent’s character.
該政客常常攻擊他對手的人格。
(D) doubtful a. 懷疑的
be doubtful of…  懷疑……
•Please don’t be doubtful of my intentions.
請不要懷疑我的意圖。
b. 空格後列舉小型機器的許多好處,得知其好處「顯而易見」,故 (A) 項應為正選。

5. The Robot Olympics will test private companies’ inventions to see which mini-robot can jump the farthest, lift the most weight, and maneuver the best.
理由
a. (A) each(每一個)及 (B) their(他們的)置入空格後,可修飾其後的單數名詞 mini-robot,形成名詞子句(其前省略 that)作前面及物動詞 see 的受詞,但不符合前後語意,故 (A)、(B) 不可選。
b. (C) which(哪一個)為疑問詞,可引導名詞子句作及物動詞 see 的受詞,且由於 which 為疑問形容詞,置入空格後,亦可修飾其後的單數名詞 mini-robot,在名詞子句中作主詞用,符合語意及用法,故為正選。
c. (D) whether(是否)亦可引導名詞子句作及物動詞 see 的受詞,但由於 mini-robot 是可數名詞,作主詞時須與冠詞、限定詞並用或用複數,因此 whether 置入後會造成 mini-robot 無法作主詞用的情況,故 (D) 不可選。

1. be familiar with…  熟悉……
•Are you familiar with the head librarian at our university?
你跟我們大學裡的圖書館館長熟嗎?

2. no doubt  毫無疑問地
= without (a) doubt
= doubtless adv.
•Henry will no doubt be late again this morning.
毫無疑問地,亨利今早一定又會遲到。

3. set one’s sights on…  決心要做到……
•I’ve set my sights on getting into a college in France.
我已決心要進入法國的大學就讀。

4. be set to V  預定∕準備好……
•The press conference is set to begin at 10:30 a.m.
記者招待會預定在早上十點半開始。

1. defense n. 防禦
•The world must improve its defenses against infectious diseases.
全球必須加強對傳染病的防禦。

2. accomplishment n. 成就
•Helping others gives Christine a sense of accomplishment.
幫助他人讓克莉絲汀很有成就感。

3. technological a. 科技的
•The 3-D effects in that movie are technological breakthroughs because they create sensations that viewers have never felt before.
那部電影的 3D 特效是科技上的突破,因為它們創造出觀眾從沒體驗過的感官享受。

4. partially adv. 部分地
= in part
•The guard was partially at fault for the theft.
這名警衛對這起失竊案要負部分責任。

5. feature vt. 以……為主要特色
•The magazine features the latest fashion trends.
這本雜誌主打最新的流行時尚趨勢。

6. disguise vt. 掩飾,偽裝
disguise oneself as…  某人喬裝成……
•Jacob disguised himself as Batman last Halloween.
雅各在去年萬聖夜把自己假扮成蝙蝠俠。

7. relay vt. 傳達,傳遞;轉傳
•The doctor relayed the outcome of the surgery to the patient’s family.
醫生將手術的結果傳達給病人的家屬。

8. operation n.(有目的的)活動,行動
•Following the flood, a large-scale rescue operation was launched.
一場大規模的救援行動於水災後啟動。

9. disaster n. 災難
•The singer tried her hand at hosting a talk show, but it turned out to be a disaster.
那名歌手嘗試主持談話節目,結果卻慘不忍睹。

10. inspect vt. 檢查,查驗
•Sandy inspected all the windows before the typhoon came.
珊蒂在颱風來臨前檢查了所有窗戶。

11. maneuver vi. 巧妙地移動
•It’s hard to maneuver around these obstacles.
要有技巧地越過這些障礙物並不容易。

12. entry n. 參賽作品
•I have participated in several design competitions, and some of my entries have received high marks from judges.
我曾參加過數場設計比賽,而其中一些參賽作品獲得評審很高的評價。

have (something) to do with…  與……有關
•I believe Fred had something to do with my missing jacket.
我認為弗萊德跟我遺失的夾克有關。
————————————————————————-
其他與 have (something) to do with… 相關的常見用法如下:
a. have nothing to do with…  與……無關
•My illness has nothing to do with the food we ate tonight. It’s because of my medication.
我身體不適和今晚吃的食物一點關係也沒有。是服藥的緣故。
b. have everything to do with…  和……密切相關
•This problem has everything to do with you.
這個問題與你密切相關。
c. have a lot / much to do with…  與……有很大的關係
•The way one behaves has a lot to do with one’s upbringing.
一個人的行為舉止和教養有很大的關係。
d. have little to do with…  和……幾乎無關
•Your comment has little to do with our discussion.
你的言論跟我們討論的主題幾乎無關。

cutting-edge a. 尖端的
humanoid a. 人型的 & n. 人型機器人
miniaturization n. 微型化
microbiotic a. 微型機器人的
small-scale a. 小規模的
programmable a. 可以用程式控制的
microchip n. 晶片
handler n. 操作者
peacetime n. 和平時期
surveillance n. 監視
sensory a. 感應的;知覺的

少即是多 微型機器人拯救世界
  

  你或許對美國機構 DARPA(國防高等研究計劃署)不甚熟悉,但你肯定對這個機構的某些成就耳熟能詳。由於 DARPA 隸屬於國防部,你可能會認為他們在尖端科技上的成功一定和戰爭有關。你只答對了一部分。就舉網際網路為例吧。沒錯,它是 DARPA 的其中一個計畫。那人型機器人呢?雖然它們一開始只是科幻小說裡的產物,DARPA 已使它們成為現實。如今,該組織著眼於將機器人微型化。奧林匹克機器人大賽預計於 2019 年三月揭幕,主打只有一至兩公分大的機器人。DARPA 這項新的計畫名為 SHRIMP(短程獨立微型機器人平臺),證明了即使是軍方也有幽默感(編按:該計畫的縮寫 SHRIMP 一字在英文中為「蝦子」之意。)。
  有時候,較小的事物可能更好。小型機器的好處顯而易見:它們更加便宜、更加容易躲藏或偽裝,而且可進行編程以執行多種任務。它們以微型電池和電腦晶片驅動,能夠尋找並將重要訊息傳給它們的操控者。在和平時期,它們可以被用於天災之後的搜救任務或檢查危險的環境。奧林匹克機器人大賽將會對私人企業的發明進行測試,以查看哪一個微型機器人能夠跳得最遠、舉得最重,以及有最佳的靈活性。獲勝的參賽作品可望與政府簽約來進一步發展並應用這些微型奇蹟機器人在改善醫學、監視系統、感應及更多的領域上。
答案:
1. B 2. D 3. C 4. A 5. C

 
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