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‘All of Africa Is Here’: Hopes of Climbing to Spain 「非洲人全在這兒」:翻牆進入西班牙


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讀紐時學英文
2018/09/21 第232期 訂閱/退訂看歷史報份
 
 

紐時周報精選 ‘All of Africa Is Here’: Hopes of Climbing to Spain 「非洲人全在這兒」:翻牆進入西班牙
In Anarchic Corner of Copenhagen,Police and Dealers Play Cat and Mouse 無政府角落 警察與毒販玩貓捉老鼠


紐時周報精選
 

‘All of Africa Is Here’: Hopes of Climbing to Spain 「非洲人全在這兒」:翻牆進入西班牙
文/Rod Nordland
譯/王麗娟

For most migrants from Africa, the last stage of their trip to Europe involves some sort of perilous sea crossing. At the border in Ceuta, there is just a fence.

對大多數非洲移民而言,前往歐洲的最後階段涉及某種危險萬狀的渡海。但在西屋達的邊界,它僅是一牆之隔。

Ceuta (pronounced say-YOU-tah) is one of the two Spanish communities on the north coast of what otherwise would be Morocco, the only places where Europe has land borders with Africa.The other enclave is Melilla, farther east along the same coast.

西屋達是非洲北岸的兩個西班牙自治社區之一,為摩洛哥所包圍,兩地也是歐洲與非洲陸地接壤的唯二地點。另一個飛地是美利亞,在同一海岸,更向東些。

Here, all that separates Europe from migrants is a double fence, 20 feet high and topped with barbed wire, stretching the 4 miles across the peninsula and dividing tiny Ceuta from Morocco — plus 1,100 Spanish federal police and Guardia Civil officers, a paramilitary police force.

在西屋達,隔著歐洲與移民的只有兩道圍籬,圍籬頂端有帶刺鐵絲網,高20呎,橫跨半島4哩,將西屋達與摩洛哥分開,另外還有1,100名西班牙聯邦警察以及準軍事警察「西班牙國民警衛隊」的警察。

They patrol a crossing point that has come under growing pressure.

他們巡邏的一個過境點正遭受越來越大的壓力。

After Italy’s new government closed the door to migrants, efforts to cross into Spain have more than quadrupled in 2018, making it the No. 1 European destination for migrants from Africa.

義大利新政府對移民緊閉大門後,2018年,移民越界入境西班牙的嘗試增加了四倍有餘,西班牙因此成為非洲移民的頭號目的地。

In the week ending Aug. 12, according to the International Organization for Migration, 1,419 migrants reached Spain, compared with 359 to Italy and 527 to Greece.

根據國際移民組織的數據,截至8月12日的一周,有1,419名移民抵達西班牙,抵達義大利的有359人,希臘的有527人。

But the sea crossing to Spain, through the narrow straits of Gibraltar, is more dangerous than other passages, because of strong currents where the Mediterranean Sea meets the Atlantic.

不過,渡海抵達西班牙─穿越狹窄的直布羅陀海峽,因會遭遇地中海與大西洋交會處的強大海流,比其他路線都來得危險。

Through June, 294 migrants drowned in the western Mediterranean, compared with 224 in all of 2017 in that area.

今年截至6月底,已有294名移民在地中海西部溺斃,而2017年一整年才224人。

That has made trying to breach Ceuta’s heavily guarded fence an increasingly attractive proposition, a way to enter Spain without crossing the water. On any given day, young migrant men can be seen prowling on the Moroccan side, looking for an opportunity.

這使得設法突破西屋達高戒備圍籬的選擇,變得越來越有吸引力,它是進入西班牙的途徑之一,但不必飄洋過海。 任何一天,在摩洛哥的一方,都可看到年輕的移民男子徘徊,尋找機會。

As often happens, successful tries are made by what locals call “mobbing,” when hundreds of migrants surge over the fence in a large group. Salif’s group came on June 6, when 400 young men began climbing the fence at sunrise.

這是常見的情景,移民透過當地人所說的「圍攻法」,也就是數百人集體朝圍籬一擁而上,最後有人成功入境。沙利夫的這一團人是在6月6日行動,有400名年輕人於日出時分開始攀爬圍籬。

Two were seriously injured on the barbed wire, and hospitalized in Ceuta. Eight, including Salif, managed to get over, and were then allowed to stay in a reception center in Ceuta, awaiting transfer to the mainland.

其中兩人因帶刺鐵絲網而受重傷,在西屋達住院治療。包括沙利夫在內的八人翻牆成功,獲准留在西屋達的接待中心,等待移送本土。

There, they can apply for asylum, a process that can take many months or even years. Most will be turned down, and the deportation process is slow and difficult.

到了本土,他們可以申請庇護,這個過程可能費時數月甚至數年。大多數人會被打回票,但遣返過程緩慢且困難。

While people often do get hurt trying to pierce the fence, deaths are rare.

雖然經常有人在試圖穿越圍籬時受傷,但死的很少。

“All of Africa is here,” said Salif, ticking off migrants he has met from Angola, Benin, Burkina Faso, Ivory Coast, Nigeria, Senegal — and even some from Bangladesh and Pakistan.

沙利夫說:「非洲人全在這兒。」接著他點名遇見安哥拉、貝寧、布吉納法索、象牙海岸、奈及利亞以及塞內加爾等國的移民,甚至有些來自孟加拉、巴基斯坦。

And they keep coming.

而且他們仍接踵而至。 

 


In Anarchic Corner of Copenhagen,Police and Dealers Play Cat and Mouse 無政府角落 警察與毒販玩貓捉老鼠
文/Ellen Barry
譯/王麗娟

When a phalanx of Danish policemen in bulletproof vests crosses the boundary into Christiania Freetown, the hippie commune in the center of Copenhagen, many things happen at once.

當穿著防彈背心的丹麥警察越界進入克里斯蒂安尼亞自由城,這個位於哥本哈根市中心的嬉皮公社時,許多事也瞬間發生。

There is urgent shouting. Lumps of hashish and bags of marijuana disappear into black vinyl sacks, which are then rolled up and thrown onto roofs, hidden under floorboards and stuffed into ingeniously camouflaged hidey-holes — inside hollow propane tanks or behind mirrors. The dealers themselves scatter, sneakers pounding.

有急切的喊叫聲。一塊塊大麻膏和一包包大麻被塞進黑色塑膠袋,捲成團扔上屋頂,藏到地板下,或塞進巧妙偽裝的藏放處─空瓦斯桶裡或鏡子後方。毒販本身則作鳥獸散,發出運動鞋快跑聲。

By the time police officers reach the open-air hash market on Pusher Street, pistols at their hips, the scent of hash has been replaced by the scent of cinnamon rolls, and half the population is missing. Police march through, poking ineffectually at the drug-dealers’ empty stalls.

手槍掛腰間的警察抵達毒販街的露天大麻膏市場時,大麻膏的氣味早被肉桂捲的香氣取代,一半的人消失無蹤。警察在市場中前行,無效地在空空如也的毒販攤中戳找。

The officers, burly and heavily armed, survey the marketplace with their legs planted far apart, projecting dominance. But that is not the case. Within seconds of their departure, the bustling drug market reassembles itself and business resumes.

身形魁梧且全副武裝的這些警察,叉開兩腿打量著市場,說明一切在掌控中。但事實並非如此。他們離開數秒後,熱鬧的販毒市場又重新組合,繼續營業。

This dance has taken place several times a day this summer between the government of Denmark and Freetown Christiania, one of Europe’s longest-running utopian experiments.

丹麥政府和克里斯蒂安尼亞自由城的這場舞蹈,今夏每天都上演數次,後者也是歐洲上演最久的烏托邦實驗之一。

The area was an abandoned military base in 1971 when squatters broke down the barricades and occupied 84 acres of land, declaring “a self-governing society” of artists and freethinkers. Denmark has allowed the commune to exist for nearly half a century, in violation of property laws, planning laws and drug laws.

1971年時該區是個廢棄的軍事基地,這一年土地侵占者破壞了障礙物,占據了84英畝土地,宣稱它是藝術家和自由思想家的一個「自治社會」。丹麥允許該社區存在已近半個世紀,違反財產法,都市計畫法和毒品法。

Christiania is now one of Copenhagen’s biggest tourist attractions, the subject of a vast number of academic studies and a kind of living monument to Danish tolerance.

克里斯蒂安尼亞現今是哥本哈根最夯的旅遊景點之一,是大量學術研究的主題,也是丹麥寬容精神鮮活的見證。

“If it had happened in Germany or France, the military would have shut it down,” said Jiesper Tristan Pedersen, an anthropologist and occasional resident of Christiania. “Danish policy back then was more gentle. They were irritated, they didn’t know what to do, but they didn’t want to use violence. A lot of people look at it this way, as Danish gentleness and politeness.”

人類學家、偶爾也是克里斯蒂安尼亞居民的季斯伯.特里斯坦.派德森說:「倘若它發生在德國或法國,軍方早已將它關閉。當時的丹麥政策更加溫和。他們很憤怒,不知該怎麼辦,但不想使用暴力。很多人認為這代表丹麥人的和善有禮。」

The mood in Denmark has swung to law and order, though, in recent years. Urban housing projects have become the scene of increasing drug offenses and gang activity. And as anxiety rises, so does support for the anti-immigrant far right.

不過,近年來丹麥的氛圍轉向講求法律與秩序。一些公宅毒品犯罪和幫派活動與日俱增。隨著焦慮升高,反移民極右派的支持度也同樣升高。

Conservative-leaning politicians have promised to shut down the Pusher Street drug trade, noting a jarring act of violence that occurred two years ago, when a dealer shot and injured two policemen. This summer has been tense.

保守傾向的政治人物承諾關閉毒販街的毒品交易,指出兩年前曾發生的一起暴力事件,一名毒販槍傷兩名警察。今夏氣氛也始終緊張。

 


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