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The Final Resting Place of the Bard  情傾莎翁四百年

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2016/11/22 第290期 訂閱/退訂看歷史報份直接訂閱

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The Final Resting Place of the Bard  情傾莎翁四百年

by Bruce E. Bagnell

The Shakespeare Birthplace Trust is dedicated to keeping alive the legend of William Shakespeare, including his last home, New Place.
莎士比亞出生地信託基金會致力於讓威廉•莎士比亞的傳奇永世流傳,包含他的故居 ── 新居。

  William Shakespeare (1564-1616) hardly needs an introduction. Though this year marks the 400th anniversary of his passing, his works are of such abundance and quality that more than 150 of his poems and nearly 40 of his plays are still studied and appreciated by vast numbers around the world. _(1)_ Even today, his plays are still not only staged but also made into movies. Shakespeare’s words have left a deep and lasting impression on the English language as well.
  Born in Stratford-upon-Avon, Shakespeare grew up and was educated in that small town. His professional life was spent mostly in London, England. _(2)_ He was popular and successful, earning enough to buy an estate back in Stratford-upon-Avon, called New Place. He retired in 1613 but lived only a few years longer while residing there. _(3)_ Ben Jonson, a playwright second only to Shakespeare at the time, wrote a poem as the preface for the First Folio, in which he praised Shakespeare as "not of an age, but for all time." _(4)_
  New Place is now a center of activity centering on Shakespeare’s life. The original house no longer exists, but the grounds and a later replacement building that Shakespeare never saw do. _(5)_ The house is said to have had 10 fireplaces and five gables. The charity Shakespeare Birthplace Trust acquired New Place in 1876 and has built a museum nearby to honor the Bard of Avon.

(A) His gift for writing about the human experience covered history, drama, comedy, romance, and tragedy.
(B) The grounds are large enough to contain a garden, two
barns, and an orchard.
(C) After his death, two of his friends and
fellow actors collected Shakespeare’s dramatic works and had them published in 1623, now referred to as the First Folio.
(D) However, the house was destroyed in a fire and later was torn down.
(E) There, he was a part-owner of an acting
troupe, as well as an actor in it, for which he did most of his playwriting.
(F) Those words have
rung true for the last four centuries and likely beyond.

 
  1. 第一題空格應選 (A)
    理由:
    a. 空格前一句提及 "Though this year marks the 400th anniversary of his passing, his works are of such abundance and quality that more than 150 of his poems and nearly 40 of his plays are still studied and appreciated by vast numbers around the world."(儘管今年是他逝世的四百週年,他作品的數量與質量之高,以至於他有一百五十多首詩及將近四十部劇作至今在全球仍受許多人研究與欣賞。),而 (A) 項句子提及 "His gift for writing about the human experience covered history, drama, comedy, romance, and tragedy."(他描寫人類經驗的天賦涵蓋了歷史、戲劇、喜劇、浪漫劇,以及悲劇。),(A) 項句子的前一句的 history, drama, comedy, romance, and tragedy(歷史、戲劇、喜劇、浪漫劇,以及悲劇)即補充說明前一句 his poems(他的詩)及 his plays(他的劇作)的類型,故形成關聯。
    b. 根據上述,(A) 項應為正選。
    大補丸:
    a. gift n. 天賦,才能
    衍: have a gift for…  有……的天賦
    Believing that his son is gifted in painting, Liam has decided to send him to art school.
    連恩相信他兒子有繪畫天賦,已決定送他到藝術學校唸書。
    b. romance n. 愛情故事;戀情
    c. tragedy n. 悲劇;慘案
  2. 第二題空格應選 (E)
    理由:
    a. 空格前一句提及 "His professional life was spent mostly in London, England."
    (他的職業生涯大部份都是在英國倫敦度過的。),而 (E) 項句子提及 "There, he was a part-owner of an acting troupe, as well as an actor in it, for which he did most of his playwriting."(在那裡,他是一個劇團的合夥人,同時也是該劇團的演員,他的劇作大多都是為了這個劇團而寫的。),(E) 項句子的 There(在那裡)指的即是前一句的 London, England(英國倫敦),故形成關聯。
    b. 根據上述,(E) 項應為正選。
    大補丸:
    troupe n.(演出)團
  3. 第三題空格應選 (C)
    理由:
    a. 空格後一句提及 "Ben Jonson, a playwright second only to Shakespeare at the time, wrote a poem as the preface for the First Folio, in which he praised Shakespeare as ‘not of an age, but for all time.’"(一位在當時僅次於莎士比亞的劇作家班•強生替第一對開本寫了序言,在裡面他稱讚莎士比亞為『不僅僅是一代大師,而是永恆經典。』),而 (C) 項的句子提及 "After his death, two of his friends and fellow actors collected Shakespeare’s dramatic works and had them published in 1623, now referred to as the First Folio."(在他逝世之後,他的兩位朋友兼同團演員收集了莎士比亞的劇作,並於 1623 年將之出版,現今稱之為第一對開本。),前後兩句皆提及 the First Folio(第一對開本),故形成關聯。
    b. 根據上述,(C) 項應為正選。
    大補丸:
    a. fellow a. 同事的;同伴的
    b. dramatic a. 戲劇的;戲劇性的
    c. be referred to as…  被稱作……
    d. the First Folio  第一對開本
    (為現代學者替第一部威廉•莎士比亞劇本合集命名的名字。其實際名稱為《威廉•莎士比亞先生的喜劇、歷史劇和悲劇》)
  4. 第四題空格應選 (F)
    理由:
    a. 空格前一句提及 "Ben Jonson, a playwright second only to Shakespeare at the time, wrote a poem as the preface for the First Folio, in which he praised Shakespeare as ‘not of an age, but for all time.’"(一位在當時僅次於莎士比亞的劇作家班•強生替第一對開本寫了序言,在裡面他稱讚莎士比亞為『不僅僅是一代大師,而是永恆經典。』。),而 (F) 項的句子提及 "Those words have rung true for the last four centuries and likely beyond."(這番話在過去四個世紀以來都相當正確,而且未來也很可能依然如此。),(F) 項句子的 Those words(這番話)即是指前一句的 "not of an age, but for all time."(『不僅僅是一代大師,而是永恆經典。』),故形成關聯。
    b. 根據上述,(F) 項應為正選。
    大補丸:
    ring true  聽起來有道理
    Eric’s excuse for being late just doesn’t ring true to me.
    艾瑞克遲到的藉口對我來說聽起來沒什麼道理。
  5. 第五題空格應選 (B)
    理由:
    a. 空格前一句提及 "The original house no longer exists, but the grounds and a later replacement building that Shakespeare never saw do."(原本的房子已經不存在,但園區與一棟後來莎士比亞從未見過、取代原本房子的建築依然存在。),而 (B) 項的句子提及 "The grounds are large enough to contain a garden, two barns, and an orchard."(整個園區很大,足以容納一座花園、兩座穀倉及一座果園。),前後兩句皆提及 the grounds(園區),故形成關聯。
    b. 根據上述,(B) 項應為正選。
    大補丸:
    a. barn n. 穀倉
    b. orchard n. 果園

birthplace n. 誕生地,發源地
trust n. 信託機構
estate n. 莊園
playwright n. 劇作家
同: scriptwriter n.
preface n. 序言
grounds n. 園區,場地(恆用複數)
gable n. 山形牆

  1. be dedicated to N/V-ing  致力於……
    同: be devoted to N/V-ing
  2. keep… alive  使……繼續存在/持續下去
  3. be second to…  僅次於……
    衍: be second to none  首屈一指
    When it comes to singing, Edmund is second to none.
    說到唱歌,艾德蒙是最棒的。
  4. praise sb/sth as…  稱讚某人/某物為……
    praise vt. 讚揚
    The media praised the basketball player as a fast and talented athlete.
    媒體稱讚那位籃球選手是一名速度快又有天份的運動員。
  5. center on… 關於/著重在……
    同: focus on…
    Much of the debate centered on privacy issues.
    大部份的辯論都集中於隱私權議題。
    *privacy n. 隱私
  1. legend n. 傳奇;傳說
    衍: Legend has it that…  據傳說……
    Legend has it that Shakespeare died on his birthday, but there are no records to prove it.
    據傳莎士比亞在他生日當天逝世,不過並沒有任何紀錄可以證實這個傳聞。
  2. hardly adv. 幾乎不
    Though Romeo and Juliet hardly knew each other, they fell in love at first sight.
    儘管羅密歐與茱麗葉幾乎不瞭解對方,他們仍一見鍾情。
    *at first sight  第一眼
  3. mark vt. 標誌,代表(重要的變化或發展)
    The sudden death of Lady Macbeth marks the loss of Macbeth’s only love.
    馬克白夫人的驟逝代表馬克白失去了他唯一摯愛。
  4. anniversary n. 週年紀念
    Circa Theatre celebrated its 40th anniversary with a new production of the tragedy King Lear.
    瑟卡劇院以全新製作的悲劇《李爾王》來慶祝它的四十週年紀念。
  5. abundance n. 豐富
    衍: an abundance of…  大量的/充份的……
    There was an abundance of food at the party.
    這場派對上的食物很充足。
  6. poem n. 詩(可數名詞)
    衍: poetry n. 詩(集合名詞,不可數)
    a poem, two poems… many poems (○)
    a poetry, two poetries… many poetries (×)
  7. stage vt. 進行(演出);舉辦(活動)
    The flight attendants staged a protest against a change in their working conditions.
    空服員針對他們工作環境的改變發起一場抗議活動。
    *flight attendant  空服員
  8. replacement n. 代替的人/事/物
    We are searching for a replacement for the secretary who just left.
    我們正在尋找代替剛離職祕書的人。
  9. fireplace n. 壁爐
  10. acquire vt. 收購;取得,獲得
    Microsoft announced in June 2016 that it planned to acquire LinkedIn for $26.2 billion.
    微軟於 2016 年六月宣佈該公司計劃以兩百六十二億美元收購領英。
    Prince Hamlet’s uncle murdered the King to acquire the throne.
    哈姆雷特王子的叔叔謀殺了國王以獲取王位。

情傾莎翁四百年
莎士比亞出生地信託基金會致力於讓威廉•莎士比亞的傳奇永世流傳,包含他的故居 ── 新居。
  威廉•莎士比亞(1564 年 ─ 1616 年)幾乎不需要介紹。儘管今年是他逝世的四百週年,他作品的數量與質量之高,以至於他有一百五十多首詩及將近四十部劇作至今在全球仍受許多人研究與欣賞。他描寫人類經驗的天賦涵蓋了歷史、戲劇、喜劇、浪漫劇,以及悲劇。即便到了現今,他的劇作不僅仍在舞臺上演出,也被製成電影。莎士比亞的遣詞用字也對英文這個語言產生了深刻而久遠的影響。
  莎士比亞出生於埃文河畔斯特拉特福,他在這座小鎮上長大並接受教育。他的職業生涯大部份都是在英國倫敦度過的。在那裡,他是一個劇團的合夥人,同時也是該劇團的演員,他的劇作大多都是為了這個劇團而寫的。他很受歡迎且相當成功,賺的錢足夠回到埃文河畔斯特拉特福購買一座名為新居的莊園。他於 1613 年退休,但之後只在該地居住不到幾年的時間。在他逝世之後,他的兩位朋友兼同團演員收集了莎士比亞的劇作,並於 1623 年將之出版,現今稱之為第一對開本。一位在當時僅次於莎士比亞的劇作家班•強生替第一對開本寫了序言,在裡面他稱讚莎士比亞為『不僅僅是一代大師,而是永恆經典。』這番話在過去四個世紀以來都相當正確,而且未來也很可能依然如此。
  新居目前是以莎士比亞一生為主題的活動中心。原本的房子已經不存在,但園區與一棟後來莎士比亞從未見過、取代原本房子的建築依然存在。整個園區很大,足以容納一座花園、兩座穀倉及一座果園。這棟房子據說擁有十座壁爐以及五面山形牆(編按:建築兩個側面上方成山尖形的橫牆。)慈善機構莎士比亞出生地信託基金會於 1876 年收購新居,並在附近建了一座博物館以紀念埃文河畔吟遊詩人 ── 莎翁。
答案:1. A 2. E 3. C 4. F 5. B

 
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